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Imperial China

This study stack is to help you study for a test on Imperial China

QuestionAnswer
According to the Mandate of Heaven, when can people overthrow the emperor? People can overthrow an emperor when he rules badly or if a natural disaster happened.
What is a bureaucracy? What happened when the bureaucracy in China became corrupt? A bureaucracy is an organization of workers with levels of authority. Rules did apply to everyone, so they ended up not working well.
What happened to China when the Han dynasty lost the Mandate of Heaven? Who reunited China? Heavy taxes caused the Han dynasty to lose the Mandate of Heaven. The Sui dynasty reunited North and South China.
Who were scholar-officials? Scholar-officials were people that had government jobs that they got through examinations.
What was the examination for scholar-officials based on? The examination for scholar-officials were based on the teachings of Confucius.
Why did aristocrats continue to hold offices? Aristocrats were wealthy so they could afford the tutors, books, and time to study for the examinations.
According to emperors and scholars, knowledge of Confucius would produce what type of goverment official? Knowledge of Confucius would produce government officials that were rational, moral, and could maintain order.
What new group of people was allowed to become government officials during the Song period? The new group of people that were allowed to become government officials were the lower classes.
Why did people want government jobs? People wanted government jobs because they were respected and excused from taxes and military service.
Whom did Kublai Khan choose to fill important government positions? Kublai Khan appointed relatives, other Mongols, and trusted foreigners to important government positions.
What happened to Chinese scholars during the Mongol rule? During the Mongol rule, Chinese scholars worked only as teachers and minor government officials.
How did hiring scholars help China? Hiring scholars helped China in three ways: (1) emphasized moral behaviors, justice, kindness, loyalty, etc. (2) insured that officials were trained and talented, and (3) allowed ambitious and hard working people from all classes to succeed.
How did hiring scholars hurt China? Hiring scholars hurt China in two ways: (1) people that knew science, math, and engineering were kept out of government (2) Confucian scholars had little respect for merchants - trade/business were not encouraged.
List characteristics of agriculture in southern China from the 10th to the 13th centuries. Terraced hillsides, fertilizers, harrow plow/chain pumps, landowners became rich, new crops (tea, cotton, sugar, silkworms), water buffaloes pulled plows, produced more rice
List characteristics of commerce in China from the 10th to the 13th centuries. switch from copper coins to paper money, more shops appeared, barges replaced the oxcart, trade routes to India, Arabia, and Europe increased, incomes increased, cities grew
List characteristics of urbanization in china from the 10th to the 13th centuries. increased business opportunities, cities were crowded, entertainment (jugglers, acrobats, puppeteers), theaters, restaurants, wine shops, and teahouses appeared, cultural/artistic growth, encouraged people to move from towns to cities
What are two interesting facts about the invention of the compass? Early Chinese compasses were made of rock called lodestone. The Chinese eventually replaced lodestone with steel needles.
Explain how the invention of the compass has influenced the modern world. The compass (GPS systems now) still help travelers navigate.
What are two interesting facts about the invention of the canal lock? The canal lock allowed boats to pass from one level to another another. The canal lock could raise boats 100 ft. above sea level.
Explain how the invention of the canal lock has influenced the modern world. We still use the canal lock on modern canals like the Panama Canal.
What are two interesting facts about the invention of movable type? Movable type uses a separate block for each character. Printers made characters out of clay, baked them, and then placed them in an iron frame.
Explain how the invention of movable type has influenced the modern world. Until the invention of computers, all newspapers, books, and magazines were printed using the concept of movable type.
What are two interesting facts about the invention of porcelain? Porcelain is a form of pottery of great beauty that some historians think was developed in the first century. Porcelain was mass produced.
Explain how the invention of porcelain has influenced the modern world. Fine dishes are still called "china" after fine porcelain.
What are two interesting facts about the invention of gunpowder? Gunpowder made possible the development of powerful weapons. Gunpowder MAY have been discovered by accident by people looking for a way to extend life.
Explain how the invention of gunpowder has influenced the modern world. Gunpowder changed the way wars were conducted around the world.
What are two interesting facts about the invention of the rocket? Rockets were first used in fireworks. The Chinese made a two-stage rocket, with the first stage carrying the weapon over the enemy and the second stage dropping arrows (like Mulan movie).
Explain how the invention of rockets have influenced the modern world. The rockets we use to explore space are based on the same principles as ancient Chinese rockets.
What are two interesting facts about the invention of paper money? Paper money replaced coins. Paper money was printed with wood blocks using many colors on each bill.
Explain how the invention of paper money has influenced the modern world. Paper money is the most common form of currency today.
What are two interesting facts about the invention of the mechanical clock? The mechanical clock had a wheel that made one revolution every 24 hours. Dripping water turned it. Every quarter hour drums would beat, and every hour a bell would chime so people to the time.
Explain how the invention of the mechanical clock influenced the modern world. Modern mechanical clocks are based on the same principles as early Chinese clocks.
What are two interesting facts about the invention of the smallpox vaccine? The Chinese developed a way to inoculate people against smallpox. They made a powder from the scab of an infected person.
Explain how the invention of the smallpox vaccine has influenced the modern world. We now have vaccines for many diseases and can prevent the spread of them.
List at least 5 additional Chinese discoveries or inventions mentioned in History Alive! Medieval World and Beyond that were not part of your reading notes. playing cards, watertight compartments, segmental bridges, paper making, woodblock printing, steel, artillery shells, catapults, bombs, rifles, cannons, flame-throwers, disinfectants, boiling to kill germs.
What were some positive reasons for China to have foreign contact in the Tang dynasty? new items/ideas such as chairs, peas, garlic, spinach, ivory, pearl, music, religions (Jews, Christians, Muslims, and increase in popularity of Buddhism). Buddhists ran good schools, hospitals, and travelers' lodges.
What were some negative reasons for China not to have foreign contact in the Tang dynasty? Monks and nuns didn't have to pay taxes and changes in cultural expectations.
What were some positive reasons for China to have foreign contact in the Mongols dynasty? Silk Road was safer and easier to travel. Astronomical instruments, more accurate calendar, and a new observatory. Improved hospitals thanks to Muslim doctors. Khan had a new respect for merchants that brought things like ivory, perfume, medicines.
What were some negative reasons for China not to have foreign contact in the Mongols dynasty? Foreigners would know their printing techniques and how they made explosives. Khan appointed foreigners to be government officials to rule over Chinese that didn't read/write language. Foreign merchants travel without restrictions and don't pay taxes.
What were some positive reasons for China to have foreign contact in the Ming dynasty? New ships with 4 decks, watertight compartments that can hold hundreds of men. Cabins for merchants. Enough fresh food for everyone. New imports from other countries like sashes from India. 30 places promised to become tributaries.
What were some negative reasons for China not to have foreign contact in the Ming dynasty? Little countries send ambassadors to "kowtow" to emperor then the emperor sends their rulers truly priceless gifts and allows the privilege to trade with China Some imports (like exotic animals) are useless. Safe trade by sea not possible due to pirates
Created by: lonniewood