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World Religion exam

Islam literally means submission
observant Muslims can't drink alcohol
Muhammad was born and raised in Mecca
Islamic month of fasting Ramadan
Muhammad's job caravan driver
largest Islamic branch Sunni
Muslims are called to prayer by a muezzin
Qur'an literallymeans recite
'La ilaha illa allah, Muhammad-ur Rasul Allah.' Islamic creed There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.
Five Pillars of Islam Charity to the poor Fasting during Ramadan Prayer Hajj Creed
chapter of the Qur'an is called surah
sufism Islamic mysticism 5% 99 names of God
holiest day of Islamic week Friday
century Muhammad was born 6th Century
Muhammad's 1st wife Khadijah (25)
first word revealed to Muhammad recite (in a dream, from angel Gabriel)
place of the Night of the Ascent Medina
Muhammad is recognized as the ____ of Allah prophet
describe Charity to the Poor donate 2.5% of worth
describe fasting during Ramadan no food, drink, tobaco, sex...sunrise->sundown sign of obedience
Islamic prayer requirements 1) before prayer, wash w/water 2) Face Mecca 3) properly clothed 4)clean place 5) postures
qiblah direction towards Mecca
'Bismillahir- Rahmanir-Rahemm' INt he name of God, the compassionate, the merciul
Sharia theocracy, whole body of Islamic law ruling Islamic life
wahhabi extremely conservative al qaeda + taliban
nation of islam predominantly black Malcolm X
What is jihad 'struggle' active defense of faith 1) inner jihad: struggle to be a better practicer of one's faith 2) missionary: actively improve society 3) 'holy war' actively defend faith
Budda's name Siddhartha Gautama
Budda's title Shakyamuni
dukka term for suffering, unsatisfactoriness, misery buddhism
refrain from harming another, peace, non-violence buddhism ahimsa
circular design representing totality, the self, or the universe mandala
concept that the universe is in flux and ever-changing buddh. impermanence
conept that there's no diving self, no soul, no permanent essence in ppl buddh anatman
in mahayana, the ideal, one who doesn't enter nirvana but is constantly reborn bodhisattva
The king who, after witnessing a horrific battle, sent Buddhism out into the world Ashoka
release from suffering and rebirth that brings inner peace buddh nirvana
vows all Buddhists make 1) not to harm anyone 2) no intoxicants 3) no stealing/lying
vow Buddhist monks/nuns must make 1) can't touch gold/silver 2)can't dance/sing 3) can't sleep on soft bed
'sudden enlightenment' satori
Four Noble Truths 1) Life is suffering. 2) Suffering comes from desire. 3) To end suffering, end desire. 4) To end desire, follow 8 Fold Noble Path.
8-Fold Noble Path 1) Right Understanding 2) Right Intention 3) Right Speech 4) Right Action 5) Right Work 6) Right Effort 7) Right Meditation 8) Right Contemplation
Credal Statement Buddh Namo Buddha- enlightened one Namo Dharma- teaching Namo Sangha - community
Where did Buddhism begin? Nepal (then India)
Theraveda elders traditional southern (Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam)
Mahayana 'big raft' North (China, Korea, Japan) takes in other cultures Zen, Vajrayana
Zen Buddhism mostly Japanese Koans, mondos, ikebana, sand gardens means 'meditation'
Vajrayana Tibetian, Dalai Lama Sand mandala, ptayer flags, om mani padme hum The Diamond/Lightning Vehicle
When was Buddh. started? 5th C
prophecy about Siddhartha Gautama sees no suffering- world ruler sees suffering- world teacher
Siddhartha's clan shakya (shakyamuri)
Four Passing Sights old man sick man corpse sannyasin
'Great Going Forth'
29, Siddhartha leaves + travels from guru to guru looking for answers
dhyana meditation
sangha buddhist monastery
Tripitaka 3 collections of Buddhist texts 1) Sutras (sacred text): Buddha's words 2) Precepts (vows) ie. monks can't eat after 12noon 3) abhidharma: book w/teachings
buddhist symbols 8 spoked wheel palm/footprint lotus flower
bodhisattva enlightened being near nirvana
bodhisattva vow constantly reborn until all enlightened
zazen seated meditation
zen came from ___ to ___- china to japan
zen meditation vs Theraveda zen- empty mind theraveda- scripture focus
'What is the sound of one hand clapping?' Zen (buddhist) saying
mondos parable
koans seemingly illogical question meant to shock and to make ppl reflect
haiku 5-7-5 1) season/mood 2) moment 3) enlightenment
ikebana flower design
Tibetian objects vajra (sceptre) prayer wheel trumpets bells mandalas (geometrical art form) drums prayer flags
mudra hand gesture
mandala geometrical art form
vajra sceptre
geographic features bordering India Himalayas Indian Ocean Pakistan
earliest sacred texts (hinduism) vedas
Hindus call their religion 'Sanatana Dharma' which means The Eternal Truth
Sacred text between Arjuna and Krishna Bhagavad Gita (most important Hindu text)
in the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna counsels Arjuna to meditate, to duty, fight
most sacred river in India Ganga Ma
Brahman absolute, transcendental reality at the heart of all things reality, truth, thou art that
atman spiritual essence of all indivs
moksha ultimate human goal, release from samsara, freedom from self hindu
'Action,' moral law of consequences, cause and effect karma
everyday world illusion of reality maya
fidelity to duty, path to holiness, truth that must be fulfilled dharma
CASTES brahmin outcastes brahmin- priests outcastes- untouchables
The god who is the creative force w/four faces of understanding Brahma
god who preserves life w/warmth and kindess 10 avatars
god of destruction bringing rebirth from death Shiva
monkey god who aids Rama in his quest to free his wife Sita Hanuman
The 'Truth-Force' of Gandhi bringing justice and freedom to India Satyagraha
Hindu concept of the complementary feminine energy shakti
most significant outside modern influence on Hinduism British
most significant art for Hindus stauary
When one has____ for a god, you will offer_____ at their shrine bhakti, puja
at the source of the Ganges, William Dalrymple encouters a glacier
sound of creation om
two levels of consciousness that may be reached by uttering om waking consciousness dreaming consciousness deep sleep consciousness
Hindu stages of life student householder retiree sannyasin (renunciate)
Hinduism gets its name from Indus river (india)
vedas be, know four collections of ancient prayers and rituals
influences on Hinduism Harappa, Aryan
upanishads dialogue (teachings)
Tat tram asi 'That is Reality. That is truth. Thou art That.' Hindu
Ramayana story of Rama and Sita
salt in water story son comes home after learning. father asks about brahman & son doesn't know. tells son to put salt in water and leave overnight. cannot see salt but it's in the water.
namaste the divinity in me bows to the divinity in you
monism everything is one
brahma creator shakti- Sarasvat in Vedas goose
vishnu preserver, love shakti: Lakshmi (fortune goddess) animal: Garuda (eagle) one of the most beloved
avatar incarnations
shiva the destroyer (so things can come back to life) shakti: Durga (powerful), Parvati (meek,mild), Kali (BAD) animal: Nandi the Bull
maha devi all feminine energy
sutra thread + knowledge symbol
hindu death ritual cremation
Shiva as Nataraja drum- creation flame- destruction point foot- join me arm giving blessing 'don't be afraid'
yoga 'union' spiritual discipline
knowledge yoga shankara made school of Vedanta
action yoga (karma yoga) part of doing smthg
devotion (bhakti) yoga emotions
royal yoga meditation -ahimsa -breathing: pranayama -samadhi
samadhi complete state of inner peace
pranayama breathing
Mahatma The Great Soul
sastyagraha truth-force: if you are right, even if they kill you, in the end you will prevail
Gandhi's last words rama
notion of wu wei no unnecessary action
Tao Te Ching means classic of the way and virtue
Tao symbol water
at the end of his life, Lao Tzu is said to have left China riding on an ox/water buffalo
Taoists aim at enjoying a long life but accept death b/c death is part of the natural order of things
yin female dark moon death subtle earth water lao tzu valley
yang male light life heaven Kung Fu Tzu mountain
The Tao Te Ching has ______ chapters in approximately ______ Chinese characters 81 chapters 5000 characters
The Tao Te Ching is known for its deliberately paradoxical obscurity
The Tao is the origin of the rhythms of nature
literary character identified w/simplicity and the Uncarved Block winnie the Pooh
life force qi (ch'i)
religious taoism most active in Taiwan
one of the most important aspects in Chinese nature painting perspective
Early Taoism drew most of its belief from the religious system of Primal Chinese ideas
Sun Tzu's book on confrontation between opposites The Art of War ~300BC Principles - how you position yourself -know what you're going to do - know when to attack - surprise/secrecy
practices meant to enhance the life force mostly strive for longetivity
I Ching/Yijing Book of Changes (Dao)
Daoism founder born as as leaving China Laozi/ Lao Tzu old+wise made him write everything he knew--> Daodejing
Tao way/pattern/rhythm not god, but where everything comes from
p'u dao simplicity
de (te) virtue
relativity dao seeing other side....yin+yang
Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi) wrote self entitled book about butterfly dream harmony w/nature whimsical stories
feng shui based on manipulating___ qi (ch'i)
5 elements feng shui fire, water, earth, wood, metal
seder special ritual meal of Passover
Day of Atonement, most holy day of the year Yom Kippur
Tanak complete hebrew scriptures: torah, histories and the wisdom writings
shoah Hebrew term meaning 'extermination,' referred to as the Holocaust
Rosh Hashanah Jewish New Year beginning the 10 Days of Awe, the High Holy Days
Talmund Insights, stories, commentaries, midrash on Hebrew scriptures+traditions
Harvest feast of 'Booths' recalling the pilgrimage to the Promised Land Sukkot
Early winter festival recalling the rededcation of the Second Temple, celebrated with the lighting of candles for eight days. Hannukah
The name of God the Most High, the Creator and King of the Universe. Elohim
Bar/Bat Mitzvah Jewish initiation ritual rite of passage
dispersion of Jews beyond Israel, the 'faithful remnant' diaspora
'Wrestles with God' Israel
mikvah ritual bath of cleansing after menstruation
Qumran where Essenes hid the Dead Sea Scrolls
Kashrut ritually correct esp w/food
Joyful spring festival recalling the deliverance of the Jews from the angel of death exodus (youngest, oldest) 4 cups of wine drunk pesach
Moses Maimonides 12th C Jewish philosopher and thologian who codified the basic principles of Jewish belief
traditional Jewish blessing prayer blessed are you, of Lord our God
Sh'ma Ysrael foundational prayer for Jews Hear, O Israel: the Lord your God is one
2 god images eloish- trad 6 days Yahweh- personal god who walks + talks w/Adam
midrash interpretation
Talmund encyclopedic commentary on Hebrew scriptures
End of 2nd Temple, Biblical Judaism becomes rabbinical Judaism
Jewish calendar is modified lunar
matzah basic food to get you to live 'bread of our affliction'
Yom Hashoah Remembrance Day (holocaust)
talit Jewish prayer shawl
Tffilin only strict Orthodox jews 2 small boxes w/scripture passages head, arm
brith/bris circumcision
pantheism all reality is divine
beliefs of primal religions are usually conveyed by masks and dances, art, paintings, totems, chants
animism life exists in everything and in every part of the universe
symbols Black Elk saw sacred tree, circle of peace, eagle feather
calumet sacred pipe
Chief Joseph Stronghold referred to God as the Great Mystery
Sacred time is cyclical
What did Black Elk do? 1)witnessed massacres at Little Big Horm and Wounded Knee 2)was entrusted to pass on the sacred vision of his nation's culture 3) converted to Catholicism
religion means to connect again
What's a vision quest? 1) prayer on sacred mountain 2) special herbs and foods 3) reverence for one's ancestors
faith vs. religion faith: personal relationship to Divine Religion: sum total of worship, community, beliefs
religion similarities higher power holy writings holy places holy people art+symbols moral code prayer/worship: rituals variations: sects, offshoots
aspects that differ between religions sin/evil+salvation leadership: global vs local proselytizing
atheism vs agnosticism atheism: no god agnosticism: no BELIEF in a god (doesn't say whether or not one exists)
holistic everything is interrelated and whole
two diff types of rituals/rites of passage- primal religions when girl begins menstruating vision quest
four sacred directions in Native American religions North- cold, purity South- warmth, blossoming East- new beginnings, wisdom West- death, courage
Name for Native American high diety Wakan Tanka
spiritual realm what is beyond natural experience
red road North/South
black road East/West
name for white people wasichus
Messiah Wanekia red (life of spirit)
Great Spirit wakan tanka
themes in comogony africa- tree of life pacific islander- mother earth turtle god trickster spirit, coyote
totem pole represents dead
'Our land, our life and our religion are one' Hopi saying (native american)
Created by: clamchowder
Popular Religion sets




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