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A&PI - Ch 1

Organization of the Body

study of the structure of living organisms anatomy
study of the function of living organisms physiology
study of large body structures, visible to naked eye gross/macroscopic anatomy
all the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in particular region of body are examined at same time regional anatomy
body structure is studied system-by-system systemic anatomy
regional, systemic, and surface anatomy are all subdivisions of __ anatomy gross
study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface surface anatomy
deals with structure too small to be seen with naked eye microscopic anatomy
cytology and histology are subdivisions of __ anatomy microscopic
considers the cells of the body cytology
study of tissues histology
traces structural changes that occur in body throughout life span developmental anatomy
subdivision of developmental anatomy, concerns developmental changes that occur before birth embryology
studies structural changes caused by disease pathological anatomy
studies internal structures as visualized by specialized scanning procedures/x-rays radiographic anatomy
structure of biological molecules are investigated molecular biology
molecular biology falls under anatomy when anatomical studies are on the __ level subcellular
essential tool for studying anatomy is the mastery of anatomical terminology
feeling with your hands palpation
listening to organ sounds with stethoscope auscultation
concerns kidney function and urine production renal physiology
explains working of the nervous system neurophysiology
examines operation of heart and blood vessels cardiovascular physiology
anatomy provides a __ image of body's architecture static
physiology reveals the body's __ and animated workings dynamic
often focuses on events at cellular or molecular level physiology
what a structure can do depends on its specific form, key concept called principle of complementary of structure and function
can support and protect body organ because they contain hard mineral deposits bones
blood flows in one direction through the heart because it has __ that prevent backflow valves
simplest level of structural hierarchy chemical level
tiny building blocks of matter atom
atoms combine to form molecules
molecules associate in specific ways to form organelles
basic components of the __ __ are organelles microscopic cells
smallest unit of living things cells
lowest level of structural organization is the cellular level
above the cellular level, in complex organisms (humans), is the tissue level
groups of similar cells that have a common function tissues
epithelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nervous tissue are the four basic tissue types
cover body surfaces and lines its cavities epithelium
provides movement muscles
supports and protects body organs connective tissue
provides means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses nervous tissue
discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (four is more common) that performs a specific function for body organ
extremely complex functions become possible at the organ level
organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose organ system
highest level of structural organization in the living human being is organism
represents sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive organismal level
all body cells are interdependent
every living organism must __ __ __ so that its internal environment remains distinct from external environment surrounding it maintain its boundaries
all cells of human body are surrounded by a __ __ membrane selectively permeable
forms external body covering; protects deeper tissues from injury; synthesizing vitamin D, houses cutaneous receptors, sweat, and oil glands integumentary system
includes activities promoted by muscular systems movement
on cellular level, muscle cell's ability to move by shortening is called contractility
ability to sense changes (stimuli) in environment and then respond to them responsiveness/irritability
fast-acting control system of body; responds to internal/external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands nervous system
all body cells are __ to some extent irritable
breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into blood digestion
__ blood is distributed to all body cells by cardiovascular system nutrient-rich
in a single-cell organism, amoeba, the cell itself is digestion factory
in multi-cellular human body, digestive system performs breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into blood, for __ __ entire body
state of change; broad term including all chemical reaction that occur within body cells; includes catabolism, anabolism, and cellular respiration metabolism
breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks catabolism
synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances anabolism
using nutrients and O2 to produce ATP via cellular respiration
energy-rich molecules that power cellular activities ATP
metabolism depends on __ and __ systems to make nutrients and O2 available to blood digestive; respiratory
metabolism depends on __ system to distribute nutrients and O2 throughout the body cardiovascular
metabolism is regulated largely by __ secreted by endocrine system glands hormones
protects/supports body organs; provides framework that muscles use to cause movement; blood cells formed within bones; bones store minerals skeletal system
allows manipulation of environment, locomotion, and facial expression; maintains posture and produces heat muscular system
gland secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells endocrine system
blood vessels transport blood, which carries O2, CO2, nutrients, and wastes, etc.; heart pumps blood cardiovascular system
process of removing waste products, non-useful substances produced during digestion and metabolism, from the body excretion
another word for body wastes excreta
during excretion, digestive system rids body of __ __ residues in feces indigestible food
during excretion, urinary system disposes of __ metabolic wastes, such as urea, in urine nitrogen-containing
during excretion, cardiovascular system carries __ (by-product of cellular respiration) by way of blood to lungs where it leaves the body in exhaled air CO2
cellular reproduction occurs at __ and __ level cellular; organismal
picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood; disposes of debris in lymphatic stream; houses WBC; immune response mounts attack against foreign antigens within body lymphatic system/immunity
keeps blood constantly supplied w/O2 and removes CO2; gaseous exchange occurs through walls of air sacs of lungs respiratory system
breaks down foodstuffs into absorbable units that enter blood for distribution to body cells digestive system
eliminates nitrogenous wastes from body; regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of blood urinary system
overall function is production of offspring reproductive system
original cell divides, producing 2 identical daughter cells that may then be used for body growth/repair cellular reproduction
reproductive system's function is regulated by hormones from __ system endocrine
increase in size of body part or organism growth
for true growth to occur, __ activities must occur at faster rate than __ ones constructive; destructive
ultimate goal of all body systems is to maintain life
includes nutrients, O2, and appropriate temperature and atmospheric pressure survival needs
contain chemical substance used for energy and cell building nutrients
rich in carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals plant-derived foods
rich in proteins and fats animal foods
major energy fuel for body cells carbohydrates
essential for building cell structures proteins
provide reserve of energy-rich fuel for body cells fats
mineral that helps to make bones hard and is required for blood clotting calcium
chemical reactions that release energy from foods are oxidative reactions
single most abundant chemical substance in body H2O
for chemical reactions to continue at life-sustaining rates normal __ __ must be maintained body temperature
force that air exerts of surface of body atmospheric pressure
breathing and gas exchange in lungs depends on __ atmospheric pressure appropriate
American psychologist of 20th century who coined the word homeostasis Walter Cannon
dynamic state of equilibrium, or balance, in which internal conditions vary but always within relatively narrow limits homeostasis
factor or event being regulated, in homeostasis variable
all homeostatic control mechanisms are processes involving at least __ __ that work together three components
some type of sensor that monitors environment and responds to stimuli by sending info to the control center, in homeostasis receptor
in homeostasis, info about stimulus (input) is carried from receptor to control center, along a(n) afferent pathway
in homeostasis, level/range at which variable is to be maintained is called set point
determines set point; analyzes info it receives from receptor and determines appropriate response/course of action control center
information (output) flows from control center to effector along efferent pathway
in homeostasis, a(n) __ provides means for control center's response to stimulus effector
most homeostatic control mechanisms are __ feedback mechanisms negative
output shuts off original effect of stimulus, or reduces its intensity, causing variable to change in direction opposite to that of initial change, returning it to ideal value negative feedback mechanism
result or response enhances original stimulus so that response is accelerated positive feedback mechanism
positive feedback mechanisms are often referred to as cascades
most diseases cause a disturbance to homeostasis, a condition called homeostatic imbalance
source of homeostatic imbalance occurs when usual negative feedback mechanisms are __ and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over overwhelmed
toward head end/upper-part of structure or body; above superior/cranial
away from head end/toward lower part of structure or body; below inferior/caudal
toward or at front of body; in front of ventral/anterior
toward or at back of body; behind ventral/posterior
toward or at midline of body; on inner side of medial
away from midline of body; on outer side of lateral
closer to origin of body part or point of attachment of limb to body trunk proximal
farther from origin of body part or point of attachment of limb to body trunk distal
toward or at body surface superficial/external
away from body surface; more internal deep/internal
head is __ to abdomen superior
navel is __ to chin inferior
breastbone is __ to spine anterior
heart is __ to breastbone posterior
heart is __ to arm medial
arms are __ to chest lateral
collarbone is __ between breastbone and shoulder intermediate
between a more medial and more lateral structure intermediate
elbow is __ to wrist proximal
knee is __ to thigh distal
skin is __ to skeletal muscles superficial
lungs are __ to skin deep
is a standard body position called anatomical position anatomical reference point
body erect w/feet slightly apart; palms face fwd and thumbs point away from body anatomical position
allows us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another directional terms
using anatomical terms saves __ and is less __ words; ambiguous
2 fundamental divisions of the body are axial and appendicular
makes up main axis of body; incl head, neck, and trunk axial
consists of appendages/limbs, which are attached to body's axis appendicular
used to designate specific areas within major body division regional terms
sagittal, frontal, and transverse are the three most common body planes
sectioned parts of the body are named for the __ along which it is cut plane
vertical plane that divides body into right and left parts sagittal plane
sagittal plane that lies exactly in midline is called the median plane or __ plane midsagittal
specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline midsagittal plane
all sagittal planes offset from midline are parasagittal planes
lie vertical; however divide body into anterior/posterior parts frontal plane
frontal plane is also called coronal plane
transverse plane is also called horizontal plane
planes running from right-left, dividing body/organ into superior and inferior parts transverse/horizontal planes
many different transverse planes exist, from every possible __ from head-toe level
transverse section is also called a(n) cross section
new medical imaging devices produce __ images rather than 3D images sectional
being/located near/on/toward upper surface of body; opposite of lower or ventral surface; has 2 subdivisions dorsal cavity
dorsal cavity protects fragile __ system organs, brain/spinal cord nervous
cavity that runs bony vertebral column, enclosing delicate spinal cord; part of dorsal cavity vertebral/spinal cavity
cavity in the skull, encasing brain; part of dorsal cavity cranial cavity
spinal cord is continuation of brain, making the __ and __ cavities continuous with one another cranial; spinal
pertaining to the front/anterior; larger of closed body cavities ventral body cavity
ventral body cavity has 2 major subdivisions, which are thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
ventral body cavity houses internal organs, which are collectively called viscera/visceral organs
an organ in a body cavity viscus
division of ventral body cavity that lies above diaphragm, is bounded peripherally by wall of chest, and contains heart/lungs thoracic cavity
thoracic cavity is divided into lateral __ cavities that each envelope a lung pleural
thoracic cavity division includes superior medial cavity, containing heart, great vessels, and trachea mediastinum
fluid-filled space between the 2-layers of pericardium; within mediastinum; surrounding esophagus, trachea, and other thoracic organs pericardial cavity
separates the thoracic cavity from abdominopelvic cavity; dome-shaped muscle important to breathing diaphragm
2-regions of __ cavity are not physically separated by muscular/membrane wall abdominopelvic
superior portion of abdominopelvic cavity; lined by peritoneum, enclosed by body walls, diaphragm, and pelvic floor; contains visceral organs (as stomach, intestines, and liver) abdominal cavity
inferior portion of abdominopelvic cavity; lies in bony pelvis and contains urinary bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum pelvic cavity
abdominal and pelvic cavities are not __ with one another aligned
moist membrane found in closed ventral body cavities serosa/serous membrane
walls of __ body cavity and outer surfaces of organs it contains are covered by serosa/serous membrane ventral
part of double-layered membrane that lines walls of ventral body cavity parietal serosa
part of double-layered membrane that lines outer surfaces of organs within ventral body cavity visceral serosa
parietal serosa __ __ on itself to form visceral serosa folds in
parietal serosa is never __ but is always fused to cavity wall exposed
clear, watery fluid secreted by cells of a serous membrane; separates serous membranes; allows organs to slide without friction serous fluid
serous membranes are named for specific __ and __ with which they are associated cavity; organs
parietal pericardium lines __ cavity pericardial
parietal pericardium folds back as visceral pericardium, which covers the heart
lines walls of thoracic cavity parietal pleurae
covers lungs visceral pleurae
associated with wall of abdominopelvic cavity parietal peritoneum
covers most of organs within abdominopelvic cavity visceral peritoneum
RUQ Right Upper Quadrant
LUQ Left Upper Quadrant
RLQ Right Lower Quadrant
LLQ Left Lower Quadrant
transverse and median plane passes through umbilicus at right angles, resulting in abdominopelvic quadrants
two transverse and two para sagittal planes, positioned like a tic-tac-toe grid on abdomen create abdominopelvic regions
center-most region deep to and surrounding navel umbilical region
located superior to umbilical region epigastric region
upon, above epi-
belly gastri-
located inferior to umbilical region hypogastric/pubic region
below hypo-
located lateral to hypogastric region right and left iliac/inguinal regions
superior part of hip bone iliac
lie lateral to umbilical region right and left lumbar regions
loin lumbus
lie lateral to epigastric region right and left hypochondriac regions
cartilage chondro
commonly called mouth, contains teeth and tongue; part of and continuous w/cavity of digestive organs, which opens to exterior at anus oral and digestive cavities
located within and posterior to nose, part of respiratory system passageways nasal cavity
in skull; house eyes and present them in an anterior position orbital cavities
in skull; lie just medial to eardrums; contain tiny bony that transmit sound vibrations to hearing receptors in inner ears middle ear cavities
joint cavities; enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround freely moving joints synovial cavities
membranes lining synovial cavities secrete __ fluid that reduces friction as bones move across one another lubricating
regional term for: forehead frontal
regional term for: eyes orbital
regional term for: nose nasal
regional term for: mouth oral
regional term for: chin mental
regional term for: anterior neck cervical (anterior)
regional term for: middle of anterior thoracic sternal
regional term for: armpit axillary
regional term for: breast areas mammary
regional term for: naval umbilical
regional term for: inferior to umbilical pelvic
regional term for: inferior to pelvic inguinal/groin
regional term for: inferior to inguinal/groin pubic/genital
regional term for: anterior tip of shoulder acromial (anterior)
regional term for: anterior upper arm brachial (anterior)
regional term for: inside/anterior elbow antecubital
regional term for: anterior forearm antebrachial (anterior)
regional term for: wrist carpal
regional term for: hand manus
regional term for: thumb poliex
regional term for: palm of hand palmar
regional term for: fingers and toes, excludes big toe and thumb digital
regional term for: posterior to palm of hand metacarpal
regional term for: posterior forearm antebrachial (posterior)
regional term for: posterior elbow/bone-tip of elbow olecranal
regional term for: posterior upper arm brachial (posterior)
regional term for: posterior tip of shoulder acromial (posterior)
regional term for: ear otic
regional term for: back of head occipital
regional term for: posterior neck cervical (posterior)
regional term for: back dorsal
regional term for: should blades scapular
regional term for: spine vertebral
regional term for: lateral to spinal column lumbar
regional term for: medial to gluteal sacral
regional term for: lateral to sacral gluteal
regional term for: between anus and external genitalia perineal
regional term for: hips coxal
regional term for: anterior/posterior thigh femoral
regional term for: anterior knee patellar
regional term for: posterior knee popliteal
regional term for: anterior leg/shin crural
regional term for: posterior leg/calf of leg sural
regional term for: lateral to calf/shin of leg fibular/peroneal
regional term for: foot pedal
regional term for: ankle tarsal
regional term for: heel of foot calcaneal
regional term for: bottom/arch of foot plantar
regional term for: big toe of foot hallux
regional term for: top of foot metatarsal
formation of a platelet plug is an example of a(n) __ feedback mechanism positive
positive feedback cycle for a platelet plug ends once plug is formed
positive feedback cycle for a platelet plug is initiated when break/tear occurs in blood vessel wall
once a break/tear occurs in blood vessel wall, in a positive feedback cycle for a platelet plug, platelets begin to adhere to site and release chemicals
once platelets adhere to site and release chemicals, in a positive feedback cycle for a platelet plug, released chemicals attract more platelets
in homeostasis, a(n) __ produces change in variable stimulus
in homeostasis, a receptor detects __ change
in homeostasis, input is info sent along afferent pathway to __ __ control center
in homeostasis, output is info sent along efferent pathway to __ effector
in homeostasis, response of effector feeds back to __ effect of stimulus and __ variable to homeostatic level reduce; returns
pelvic cavity is __ to abdominal cavity perpendicular
lines the pericardial cavity parietal pericardium
covers the heart visceral pericardium
lines the thoracic cavity parietal pleura
covers the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity visceral peritoneum
lines the abdominopelvic cavity parietal peritoneum
cervical neck
coxal hip
acromial point of shoulder
antcubital front of elbow
occipital back of head
vertebral spinal column
buccal cheek
otic ear
plantar sole
carpal wrist
brachial arm
inguinal groin
popliteal back of knee
pedal foot
tarsal ankle
mental chin
olecranal back of elbow
axillary armpit
frontal forehead
orbital eye
interactions among molecules such as water, DNA, and proteins chemical level
smallest units of living things cells
similar cells with a common function tissues
several tissues performing a specific function organs
several organs integrated to do a major physiological task organ systems
regulation of blood clotting is example of positive feedback system
broken or damaged blood vessel is __ __ in positive feedback system initial signal
blood platelets adhere to damaged site is __ to initial signal in positive feedback system response
release chemicals that attract more platelets is __ of blood platelets in positive feedback system action
blood clot seals tear in damaged blood vessel is event that ends positive feedback loop
hypogastric region lower-middle portion of abdomen
epigastric region upper-middle portion of abdomen
right & left inguinal regions abdominal regions lateral to hypogastric
left and right lumbar regions abdominal regions lateral to umbilical region
right and left hypochondriac regions abdominal regions lateral to epigastric region
example of negative feedback system regulation of body temperature
effector provides means to respond to stimulus
example of a regulated variable temperature
receptor/sensor monitors changes in environment
control center determines set point & appropriate system response
abdominal cavity contains stomach, intestines, & spleen
thoracic cavity contains lungs & heart
pelvic cavity contains bladder & rectum
cranial cavity contains brain
vertebral cavity contains spinal cord
oral cavity contains teeth & tongue
nasal cavity part of respiratory passages
orbital cavity contains eyes
middle ear cavity contains bones to transmit sound vibrations
synovial cavity associated w/knee, elbow, & other joints
nervous system contains brain & spinal cord
endocrine system contains pituitary & thyroid glands
cardiovascular system contains heart & blood vessels
urinary system contains kidneys & bladder
reproductive system contains testes & ovaries
function of nervous system responds to internal & external stimuli
function of endocrine system secretes hormones
function of cardiovascular system pumps & transports blood
function of urinary system eliminate nitrogenous wastes
function of reproductive system produce sperm & eggs
cephalic head
femoral thigh
mammary breast
crural leg
antebrachial forearm
integumentary system includes skin, hair, and nails
skeletal system includes bones, cartilage, and ligaments
respiratory system includes trachea, bronchi, and lungs
digestive system includes stomach, intestines, and liver
lymphatic system includes spleen and white blood cells
function of respiratory system supplies body w/oxygen & eliminates carbon dioxide waste
function of lymphatic system defends the body from disease
function of digestive system breaks down food
function of integumentary system separates body's internal from external environment
function of muscular system provides locomotion
excels in observing metabolic processes positron emission tomography (PET)
synovial cavity lies between bones at a(n) joint
decreases friction produced by movement of organs with which it is associated serous fluid
__ __ of hollow organs is lined with epithelium inner surface
covers the outer surface of organs in a body cavity visceral serosa membrane
medical term for the lower right area of the trunk right inguinal region
where the lungs are located pleural cavity
cuts body diagonally between horizontal & vertical planes oblique section
divides body in 2 equal but non-identical left & right parts along midline midsagittal plane
included in the appendicular part of the body upper limbs
if the human body temperature drops below 37° C metabolic reactions become slower
responsiveness physiological ability to sense changes in environment & respond to them
developmental anatomy traces structural changes that occur in body throughout life span
visceral serosa cover organs
visceral pericardium covers a organ
microscopic anatomy requires magnification to study
intelligence can be useful but is not a necessary life function
skeletal system produces blood cells
nervous system works very quickly to control all changes in the body
spinal cord is located in __ body cavity dorsal
release of oxytocin to increase strength of labor contractions is example of positive feedback system
The spleen is the largest organ in lymphatic system
respiratory system consists of nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, & lungs
NOT one of three components of homeostatic control systems stimulus (cause of the initial change)
dorsal body cavity houses cranial & vertebral cavities
ventral body cavity houses thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
is made of approximately 20% oxygen air
homeostatic imbalance has occurred when a(n) person becomes ill
divides body into anterior & posterior parts frontal/coronal, plane
person w/appendicitis will most often present w/pain in RLQ
homeostasis is carried out in __ cell &, therefore, __ system every; every
homeostasis requires a complex interplay of __ __ components many cellular
tissues are made of groups of related cells
is that some variable is out of balance & is brought back into balance key to negative feedback
appendicular body contains arms, legs, & their distal extensions
receptor, control center, and effectors are parts of ALL homeostatic mechanisms
best defines physiology study of how body parts work & carry out their life-sustaining activities
best describes macroscopic anatomy study of large body structures visible to naked eye
embryology subdivision of anatomy that deals w/developmental changes that occur before birth
this phenomenon exemplifies principle of complementarity of structure & function blood flows in one direction through heart because heart has valves that prevent backflow
organismal level represents sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive
exemplifies necessary life function of maintaining boundaries human body as a whole is enclosed and protected by the integumentary system
metabolism includes breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks, synthesizing complex cellular structures from simpler substances, & using nutrients & oxygen to produce ATP
result/response of positive feedback mechanisms enhances original stimulus, & response is accelerated
directional terms allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another
breastbone is ventral to spine
chin is cranial to navel
humans may differ in their external & internal anatomies
well over 90% of all structures present in any human body match textbook descriptions
extreme anatomical variations are seldom because they are incompatible w/life
regional term designating limbs appendicular part
coronal plane divides body into anterior & posterior parts
vertical plane divides body into right & left parts
thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities ventral body cavity subdivision
serosa/serous membrane, can be found within ventral body cavity
Created by: lfrancois