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A&PI - Ch 4

Tissue the Living Fabric - Epithelium

woven tissu
allows body to function in sophisticated ways cell specialization
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues are four basic tissues types
to make firm, stable, or stationary; to give a permanent or final form to; preserved for microscopic study fixed
A cut through the body (or an organ) that is made along a particular plane; a thin slice of tissue prepared for microscopic study sections
in order to enhance contrast for microscopic study a specimen must be stained
most were originally developed by clothing manufacturers in mid-1800s light microscopy stains
consist of - or + charged molecules (acid and base stains, respectively) which bind within tissue to macromolecules of opposite charge dyes/stains
stains distinguish different __ __ because different parts of cells/tissues take up different dyes anatomical structures
conventional electron microscope which produces an image of a cross-sectional slice of a specimen all points of which are illuminated by the electron beam at the same time transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
for TEM tissues sections are stained with heavy metal salts
in TEM, the metals in the stain deflect __ in the beam to different extents electrons
TEM images are in shades of __ because color is property of light, not of electron waves gray
beam of focused electrons moves across the object with 2ndary electrons produced by object and electrons scattered by object being collected to form a 3D image on a cathode-ray tube scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
a product or formation in a microscopic preparation of fixed tissue/cell that is caused by manipulation/reagents and is not indicative of actual structural relationships artifacts
most microscopic structures we view are not exactly like those in living tissues
Pertaining to primary tissue that covers body surface, lines its internal cavities, and forms glands epithelium/epithelial tissue
laid on, covering epithe
forms outer layer of skin, dips into/lines open cavities of cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems, and covers walls/organs of closed ventral body cavity covering and lining epithelium
fashions glands of body glandular epithelium
forms boundaries between different environments, and nearly all substances received/given off by body must pass through it epithelia
protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, and sensory reception are all functions of epithelium
secretion is the specialty of __ epithelium glandular
upper free surface exposed to body exterior or cavity of an internal organ apical
surface relating to, situated at, or forming the base basal
cell regions near apical surface differ from those near basal surface in both structure and function apical-basal polarity
apical-basal polarity is partly maintained by highly ordered __ of epithelial cells cytoskeleton
tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increase surface area for absorption microvilli
some are smooth and slick, but most have microvilli apical surfaces
microvilli tremendously increase __ surface area exposed
stria of microvilli on the plasma membrane of an epithelial cell (as in a kidney tubule) that is specialized for absorption brush border
tiny hairlike projections cilia
lining of trachea have __ __ that propel substances along the free surface motile cilia
thin supporting sheet that lies adjacent to basal free surface of epithelium basal lamina
basal lamina is noncellular, adhesive sheet consisting largely of __ secreted by epithelial cells plus some fine __ fibers glycoproteins; collagen
basal lamina acts as __ __ that determined which molecules diffusing from underlying connective tissue are allowed to enter epithelium selective filter
basal lamina acts as scaffolding along which epithelial cells can migrate to repair a wound
help keep proteins in apical region of plasma membrane from diffusing into basal region, helping to maintain epithelial polarity tight junctions
specialized local thickening of the plasma membrane of an epithelial cell that serves to anchor contiguous cells together desmosomes
tight junctions and desmosomes are considered epithelial specialized contacts
all epithelial sheets rest upon and are supported by __ tissue connective
layer of extracellular material containing fine network of collagen protein fibers reticular lamina
together w/basal lamina, reticular lamina is major component of __ membrane. basement
reinforces epithelial sheet, helping to resist stretching and tearing forces, also defines epithelial boundary basement membrane
important characteristic is their failure to respect basement membrane boundary, which they penetrate to invade tissues beneath cancerous epithelial cells
supplied by nerve fibers innervated
contains no blood cells avascular
epithelial cells are nourished by substances diffusing from blood cells in the underlying connective tissues
epithelium has high __ capacity regeneration
as long as epithelial cells receive adequate nutrition, they can replace lost cells by cell division
indicates number of cell layers present first epithelium name
describes shape of its cells 2nd epithelium name
consists of single cell layer; typically found where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur and thin epithelial barrier is desirable simple epithelia
composed of 2 or more cell layers stacked on top of the other, are common in high-abrasion areas where protection is important, such as skin surface of lining of mouth stratified epithelia
in __ __, all epithelial cells have 6 somewhat irregular side cross section
an apical surface view of epithelial sheet looks like honeycomb
flattened and scale-like; nucleus is flattened disc squamous cells
box-like; approx as tall as they are wide; nucleus is spherical cuboidal cells
tall and column shaped; nucleus is elongated from top to bottom; usually located close to cell base columnar cells
in each case of epithelial cells, the shape of the __ conforms to that of the cell nucleus
all simple epithelial cells in the layer usually all have the same shape
cell shapes usually differ among different cell layers; names according to shape in apical layer stratified epithelia
flattened laterally, cytoplasm sparse; thin and often permeable; often found where filtration/exchange of substances by rapid diffusion is priority and protection not important simple squamous epithelium
in surface view, close-fitting simple squamous epithelial cells resemble tiled floor
when cut perpendicular to their free surface, simple squamous epithelial cells resemble __ __ seen from side, with cytoplasm wisping out from slightly bulging nucleus fried eggs
in kidneys, simple squamous epithelium forms part of __ membrane filtration
in lungs, simple squamous epithelium forms walls of air sacs across which __ __ occurs gas exchange
there are 2 simple squamous epithelia in body which have specialized names of endothelium and mesothelium
provides slick, friction-reducing lining in squamous epithelium found in lymphatic vessels and all hollow organs of cardiovascular system (blood vessels/heart) endothelium
consists exclusively of endothelium, its exceptional thinness encourages efficient exchange of nutrients/wastes btwn bloodstream and surrounding tissues capillaries
is squamous epithelium found in serous membranes lining ventral body cavity and covering its organs mesothelium
consists of single layer of cells as tall as they are wide; spherical nuclei stain darkly causing cell layer to look like string of beads under microscope; functions are secretion and absorption simple cuboidal epithelium
simple cuboidal epithelium forms wall of smallest duct of __ and of many __ tubules glands; kidney
single layer of tall cells w/round to oval nuclei; some bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells); closely packed cells simple columnar epithelium
simple columnar epithelium lines __ __ from stomach to rectum digestive tract
digestive tract is ideal for simple columnar epithelium because of its dense microvilli on apical surface of __ cells absorptive
digestive tract is ideal for simple columnar epithelium because of its cells that secrete a protective __ mucus lubricating
some simple columnar epithelia display __ on their free surface, which help to move substances or cells through an __ passageway cilia; internal
vary in height; all cells rest on basement membrane, but only tallest reach free surface of epithelium; secretes/absorbs substances pseudostratified columnar epithelium
because cell nuclei lie at different levels above basement membrane, tissue gives false impression that several cell layers are present, making it pseudostratified
in pseudostratified columnar epithelium short cells are relatively __ and give rise to taller cells unspecialized
ciliated version of pseudostratified columnar epithelium, containing mucus-secreting cells, lines most of respiratory tract
here, pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the respiratory tract, __ __ propel sheets of dust-trapping mucus superiorly away from lungs motile cilia
contain 2⁺ cell layers; regenerate from below; substantially more durable than simple epithelia; protection is their major, but not only, role stratified epithelia
in stratified epithelia, basal cells divide and push __ to replace older surface cells apically
most widespread of stratified epithelia; composed of several layers; thick and well suited for protective role; free surface cells are squamous, and cells of deeper layers are cuboidal/columnar stratified squamous epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium is found in areas subject to wear/tear and its surface cells are constantly being __ away and replaced by division of it basal cells rubbed
stratified squamous epithelium farther from basement membrane are less viable, due to distance from diffusion of nutrients coming from connective tissues, and those at apical surface are often flattened and __ atrophied
stratified squamous epithelium forms external part of __ and a short distance into every body __ that is directly continuous with it skin; opening
outer layer of the skin epidermis
epidermis is __, meaning its surface cells contain a tough protective protein called __ keratinized; keratin
excluding epidermis, all other stratified squamous epithelia of body are __ nonkeratinized
rare in body; mostly found in ducts of some of larger glands (sweat/mammary glands); typically has 2 layers of cuboidal cells stratified cuboidal and columnar epithelia
resembles both stratified squamous and cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal/columnar; surface cells dome shaped/squamous like, depending on degree of organ stretch transitional epithelium
stretches readily and permits distention or urinary organ by contained urine function of transitional epithelium
__ epithelium, line ureters, urinary bladder, and part of urethra transitional
nonkeratinized __ __ epithelium forms moist linings of esophagus, mouth, and vagina stratified squamous
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium forms the epidermis and __ __ dry membrane
basal cells of stratified squamous epithelium are active in __ and produce the cells of more superficial layers mitosis
located in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands non-ciliated type of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
lines trachea and most of upper respiratory tract ciliated type of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
__ __ epithelium are located in kidney tubules, ducts/secretory portions of small glands, and ovary surface simple cuboidal
absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances, ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action functions of simple columnar epithelium
lines most of digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands non-ciliated type of simple columnar epithelium
lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of uterus ciliated type of simple columnar epithelium
simple squamous epithelium secretes lubricating substances in serosae
kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavity (serosae) location of simple squamous epithelium
small amounts found in pharynx, male urethra, and lining some small glandular ducts; occurs at transition area or junctions btwn 2 other types of epithelia stratified columnar epithelia
only apical layer of stratified columnar epithelial cells is columnar
when urinary bladder is distended with urine, __ epithelium thins from about 6 cell layers to 3, and its dome-like apical cells flatten and become squamous-like transitional
aqueous fluid that usually contains proteins, but there is variation to lipid or steroid-rich fluid secretion
secretion is a(n) __ process active
glandular cells obtain needed substances from blood and transform them chemically into a product that is then discharged from the cell active process of secretion
term secretion can refer to both the gland's __ and __ of making and releasing that product product; process
internally secreting gland; ductless because eventually lose their ducts during formation process; structurally diverse endocrine
numerous, externally secreting glands; all products secreted onto body surfaces or into body cavities exocrine
glands are classified based on relative cell number making up the gland, as unicellular or multicellular
one-celled; scattered within epithelial linings of intestinal and respiratory tracts amid columnar cells with other functions; examples include mucous and goblets cells unicellular
many-celled; form by invagination or evagination from an epithelial sheet and at least initially, most have ducts, tube-like connection to the epithelial sheets multicellular
inward growth invagination
outward growth evagination
steroidal/amino acid–based molecules released to blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific body functions hormones
endocrine glands produce hormones that they secrete by __ directly into extracellular space exocytosis
each hormone prompts its __ __ to respond in some characteristic way target organ
most endocrine glands are __ organs multicellular
some endocrine glands are individual hormone-producing cells scattered in digestive tract mucosa and brain, which gives rise to their collective description as the diffuse endocrine system
endocrine gland secretions are __, ranging from modified amino acids to peptides, glycoproteins, and steroids varied
not all endocrine glands are __ __ epithelial derivatives
unicellular exocrine glands secrete their products __ onto a surface/into a cavity, by exocytosis directly
multicellular exocrine glands secrete their products via a(n) __ __ that transports secretions to epithelial surfaces epithelial-walled duct
exocrine gland that secretes bile liver
exocrine gland that synthesizes digestive enzymes pancreas
mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands, liver, pancreas are all exocrine glands
complex glycoprotein that dissolves in water when secreted, creating mucus mucin
mucin is produced by __ unicellular exocrine glands all
sticky, thick fluid secreted by mucous glands and membranes; keeps free surface of membranes moist mucus
individual cells (unicellular glands) that produce mucus; cuplike accumulation of mucin distend top of cell making cells look like glass w/stem goblet cells
mucous cells do not __ like goblet cells distort
consists of epithelium derived duct and secretory unit consisting of secretory cells multicellular exocrine glands
any of the small sacs/alveoli that terminate ducts of some exocrine glands and are lined w/secretory cells acinus
in multicellular exocrine glands, surrounds secretory unit and supplies it w/blood vessels and nerve fibers, and forms a fibrous capsule that extends into gland proper and divides gland into lobes supportive connective tissue
multicellular exocrine glands are classified based on their duct structure as either simple or compound
have an unbranched duct simple multicellular exocrine glands
have a branched duct compound multicellular exocrine glands
multicellular exocrine glands are classified based on their secretory units as tubular, alveolar/acinar, or tubuloalveolar
if secretory cells of multicellular exocrine glands form tubes tubular
if secretory cells of multicellular exocrine glands form small, flask-like sacs alveolar/acinar
if secretory cells of multicellular exocrine glands if they have both secretory units tubuloalveolar
small hollow cavity alveolus
berrylike, used interchangeably w/alveolar acinar
according to the mode of secretion multicellular exocrine glands can be described functionally as merocrine or holocrine glands
multicellular exocrine glands that secrete their products by exocytosis as they are produced; secretory cells are not altered in any way; pancreas, most sweat glands, and salivary glands merocrine glands
multicellular exocrine glands that accumulate their products within them until they rupture; secretions include synthesized product + dead cell fragments; replaced by division on underlying cells holocrine glands
only true example of holocrine glands are sebaceous glands
accumulate their product, but just only beneath free surface; apex of cell pinches off releasing secretory granules and small amount of cytoplasm; cell repairs damage and process repeats; only in animals not humans apocrine glands
in kidneys, forms part of filtration membrane; in lungs, forms walls of air sacs across which gas exchange occurs simple squamous
endothelium & mesothelium are made up of simple __ epithelial tissue squamous
simple __ forms walls of smallest ducts of gland & of many kidney tubules cuboidal
lines digestive tract from stomach to rectum simple columnar
simple columnar epithelial cells have dense __ of apical surface of absorptive cells & cells that __ protective lubricating mucus microvilli; secrete
found in kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, & lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavity simple squamous epithelium
found in kidney tubules; ducts & secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface simple cuboidal epithelium
lines most of digestive tract, gall bladder & excretory ducts of some glands nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, & some regions of uterus ciliated simple columnar epithelium
found in male's sperm-carrying ducts & ducts of large glands nonciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
found in lining of trachea & most of upper respiratory tract ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
forms moist lining of esophagus, mouth & vagina nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
forms epidermis of skin & dry membranes keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
lines ureters, urinary bladder, & part of urethra transitional epithelium
very good at regenerating epithelial tissue, bone, loose connective tissue, & blood
moderate regenerating capacity smooth muscle & dense connective tissue
poor regenerating capacity skeletal muscle & cartilage
no useful regeneration nervous tissue & cardiac muscle
epithelial tissue embryonic origin ectoderm, endoderm, & mesoderm
connective tissue & muscle tissue embryonic origin mesoderm
nervous tissue embryonic origin ectoderm
produces materials in connective tissue proper fibroblast
produces extracellular matrix of cartilage chondroblast
produces extracellular matrix of bone osteoblast
produces blood cells hematopoietic stem cell
allows voluntary movement to occur by changing position of bones skeletal muscle
allows hollow organs to contract and propel materials through them (digestive organs, reproductive organs, etc.) smooth muscle
pumps a liquid connective tissue through vessels cardiac muscle
provides secretions for lubrication of organs enclosed within the body cavities serous membranes
provides secretions that lubricate and protect areas that open to the outside of the body mucous membranes
provides protection for outer surface of body cutaneous membranes
primary tissue of the dermis dense irregular connective tissue
located within the cardiovascular system blood
primary tissue of ligaments and tendons dense regular connective tissue
skeletal system bones
forms embryonic skeleton and covers the ends of long bones hyaline cartilage
ligaments; tendons; aponeuroses dense regular connective tissue
bone marrow; spleen; lymph nodes reticular connective tissue
intervertebral discs; pubis symphysis; menisci of knee joint fibrocartilage
supports external ear, epiglottis elastic cartilage
hypodermis; in mesenteries; surrounding kidneys; posterior to eyeballs adipose
secrete histamine mast cells
produce antibodies plasma cells
produce collagen, elastic, & reticular fibers fibroblasts
phagocytic cells that engulf foreign matter macrophages
store fat molecules adipocytes
these long, thin, branching fibers form wide networks within the extracellular matrix and possess the ability to stretch and then return to their original length elastic fibers
these short branching fibers cluster into delicate networks and have the ability to glide freely across one another whenever the network is pulled, allowing give reticular fibers
strongest and most abundant fibers, they allow connective tissues to resist tension collagen fibers
no blood vessels; abundant nerve endings avascular but innervated
two laminae forming a basement membrane supported by connective tissue
tissue with a free apical surface polarity
desmosomes; tight junctions specialized contacts
rapidly replace lost cells by cell division regeneration
walls of smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules simple cuboidal
upper respiratory tract pseudostratified ciliated columnar
walls of the air sacs of the lungs and lining blood vessels simple squamous
lines the urinary bladder transitional
skin keratinized stratified squamous
during the process of tissue repair, which of the following processes produces scar tissue fibrosis
embryonic ectoderm develops into which of the following major tissue types epithelial tissue and nervous tissue
what type of tissue forms tendons? dense regular connective tissue
basement membrane is located between which of the following tissue types epithelial and connective
type of epithelial tissue lines the interior of blood vessels endothelium
unicellular gland is associated with mucus production goblet cell
which of the following apical epithelial cell structures functions in the movement of materials across the surface of the cell Cilia
which of the following best describes a squamous-shaped cell flattened, scale-like cell
which of the following epithelial tissue types is best adapted for the rapid transport of materials across its membranes simple squamous
which of the following is NOT a function of areolar connective tissue movement of body parts
which of the following is NOT a function of epithelial tissues control
which of the following is NOT an example of connective tissue transitional
which of the following tissues lines the majority of the digestive tract simple columnar
which of the following types of epithelial tissue provides the greatest amount of protection stratified squamous
which of the following indicates the proper sequence of tissue repair tissue damage, blood clotting, scab formation, organization, fibrosis, regeneration
which of the following are functional characteristics of epithelial tissue secretion, protection, absorption, filtration
mucous that protects your stomach lining is secreted by a specialized type of simple columnar epithelial cell
__ cells are simple columnar epithelial cells Goblet
type of connective tissue that provides primary support and protection for body structures is osseous tissue
nervous tissue sends electrical signals to control the body
found on the surface of the skin stratified squamous epithelium
minor distortions seen in cells from staining procedures artifacts
microvilli are found on the ________ of the cell apical surface
epithelial cells are __ by connective tissue supported
presence of keratin provides a tough protective characteristic to stratified squamous epithelium
__ gland stores its secretion until the gland ruptures holocrine
connective tissue arises from __ embryonic tissue mesoderm
flat sheath-like tendon that connects muscle to bone is known as a(n) aponeurosis
blood is considered a connective tissue because it arises from mesenchymal tissue
stroma of most solid organs is composed of reticular connective tissue
fibrosis involves proliferation of __ connective tissue called scar tissue. fibrous
inflammation is the __ __ to trauma that allows later events of repair to occur first reaction
adhesions often cause problems after surgery by preventing __ __ of internal organs normal functioning
adhesions are areas where new scar tissue grows and __ __ organs after surgery connects adjacent
a(n) __ is found on a body surface or lining a body cavity epithelium
brown adipose tissue, found only in babies, contains many lipid droplets and numerous mitochondria that use __ __ to heat the bloodstream and warm the infant lipid fuel
epithelium is __ & receives nutrients from capillaries in underlying connective tissues avascular
region of the basement membrane; a thin, non-cellular sheet, consisting of proteins secreted by epithelial tissue cells basal lamina
inflammation is a __, __ response that limits damage to the injury site while the immune response destroys particular infectious microorganisms and foreign molecules at the site of infection and throughout the body nonspecific; local
microvilli maximize the surface area across which small molecules enter or leave cells and __ __ involved in the movement of materials across the surface of a cell are NOT
epithelial tissue forms most of the body's __ glands
mucosa lines the inside of __ __ organs that open to the outside of the body hollow internal
mesothelium lines __ __ closed cavities
serous membrane, lining ventral body cavity walls & viscera, consists of a __ __ epithelium lying on thin layer of __ connective tissue simple squamous; areolar
acts to rid the body of the harmful agent, prevent further injury, and restore the tissue to a healthy condition inflammation
replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue regeneration
basic functional unit of bone tissue osteon
Created by: lfrancois



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