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AP Human Geo Vocab

Terms for AP Human Geography chapters one through nine

Distribution the arrangement of a feature in space
Density the frequency with which something occurs in space
Arithmetic Density the total number of objects in an area
Physiological Density the number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture
Agricultural Density the numer of farmers per unit of area of farmland
Concentration the extent of a feature's spread over space
Pattern the geometric arrangement of objects in space
Map a two dimensional or flat scale model of earth's surface
Cartography the science of mapmaking
Remote sensing the acquisition of data about earth's surface from a satellite orbiting earth or from other long distance methods
Geographic Information System (GIS) a high performance computer system that processes geographic data
Location the position that something occupies on earth's surface
Toponym the name given to a place on earth
Site the physical character of a place
Situation the location of a place relative to other places
Meridian an arc drawn between the North and South poles
Parallel a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Longitude the numbering system by which the location of each meridian is identified
Prime meridian 0 degrees longitude
Latitude the numbering system to indicate the location of a parallel
Greenwhich mean time the time in the time zone encompassing the prime meridian
International date line The line where the clock sets forward or backward 24 hours
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Regional studies an approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena
Formal region an area within which everyone shares in common one of more distinctive characteristics
Functional region an area organized around a node or focal point
Vernacular region a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Culture the body of customary beliefs material reaits and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people
Cultural Ecology The geographic study of human environment relationships
Environmental determinism the approach that human actions were scientifically caused by environmental conditions
Possibilism the theory that the physical environment may limit some human actions but people have the ability to adjust to their environment
Resources substances with usefulness
Podler a peice of land that is created by draining water from an area
Scale the relation of a feature's size on a map and its actual size on earh's surface
Globalization a force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope
Transnational Corporation a corporation that conducts reasearch operates factories and sells products in many countries
Space time compression the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place
Distance decay the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Diffusion the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time
Hearth the place from which an innovation originates
Relocation Diffusion the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Expansion Diffusion the spread of a feature ftom one place to another in a snowballing process
hierachical diffusion the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to the other persons or places
Contagious Diffusion the rapid widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
Stimulus diffusion the spread of an underlying principle even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse
Uneven development the increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Demography the scientific study of population characteristics
Overpopulation the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard
Ecumene the portion of earths surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Arithmetic density the total numner of people divided by total land area
Crude birth rate the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 of people alive in the society
Crude death rate the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
Natural increase rate the percentage by which a population grows in a year
Total fertility rate the average numner of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
Infant mortality rate the annual numner of deaths of infants under one year of age compared with total live births
Life expectanty the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
Demographic transition the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high birth and death rates to low crude birth and death rates
Agricultural revolution the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Industrial revolution a conjunction of major improvements in industrial techonlogy
Medical revoultion diffusion of improved medical practices
zero population growth crude birth rates and crude death rates are equal
Population pyramid a bar graph which displays a population by age and gender groups
Dependency ratio the number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years
Sex ratio the number of males per hundred females
Migration a permanent move to a new location
Emigration migration from a location
Immigration migration to a location
Net migration the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants
Mobility a more general term covering all types of movements from one place to another
Circulation short term repetetive or cyclial movements
Push factor a factor that induces people to move out of their present location
Pull Factor a factor that induces people to move into a new location
Refugees poeple who have been forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution
Floodplain the area of a river subject to flooding
Intervening obstacle an environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration
International migration permanent movement from one country to another
Internal migration permanent movement within the same country
Interregional migration movement from one region of a country to another
Intraregional Migration movement within one region
Voluntary migration permanent movement undertaken by choice
Forced migration the migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors
Migration transition change in the migration pattern in a society
Undocumented immigrants those who enter a country without proper papers
Chain migration the migration of people to a specific location becuase relatives or members of the same nationality have migrated there
Quotas maximum limits on the number of people who could immigrate to the united states from another country during a one year period
Brain drain a large scale emigration by talented people
Guest workers citizens of poor countries that obtain jobs in western europe and the middle east
Counterurbanization net migration from urban to rural areas
Habit a repetitive act that a paricular individual performs
Custom a repetitive act of a group
Folk culture culture usually practiced by a small homogeneous rural group
Popular culture culture usually practiced by large heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
Taboo restrictions on behavior imposed by social custom
Language a system of communication through speech
Literary tradition a system of written communication
Offical language the language used by the government for laws reports and public objects
Dialect a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary spelling and pronunciation
Standard language a dialect that is well established and widely recognized as the most acceptable for public uses
British received pronunciation upper class english dialect
Isogloss a word usage boundary
Language family a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed long before recorded history
Language branch a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago
Language group a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past
Vulgar latin latin of the masses
Creole or creolized language a language that results from the mixing of the colonizer's language with the indigenous lanugage of the people being dominated
Ideograms writing in which each symbol represents a phrase or idea as opposed to a specific sound
Extinct language languages no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world
Isolated language a language unrelated to any other and therefore not attached to any language family
Lingua franca a language of international communication
Franglais the use of english in the french language
Universalizing religions a religion that attempts to appeal to all people
Ethnic religion a religion that appeals to primarily one group of people living in one place
Branch a large and fundamental division within a religion
Sect a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Denomination a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
Monotheism belief that there is only one god
Polytheist belief that there is more than one god
Animism belief that inanimate objects or events have discrete spirits and concious life
Missionaries individuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion
Pagan the word for a follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times
Ghetto a city neighborhood set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews
Pilgrimage a journey for religious purposes to a place considered sacred
Cosmogony a set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe
Solstice Time when the sun is farthest from the equator
Hierarchical religion a religion with a well defined geographic structure and organizes territory into local administrative units
Diocese the basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church
Autonomous religions self sufficient religions
Fundamentalism a literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion
Caste the class hereditary order into which a hindu was assigned according to religious law
Ethnicity identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland
Triangular slave trade a trading pattern between the americas africa and europe during the eighteenth century
Sharecropper a worker who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops
Race identity with a group of peole who share a biological ancestor
Racism the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race
Racist a person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism
Blockbusting real estate sale in which the agents convinced peole living near black families to sell their houses for a very low price
Apartheid the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas
Nationality identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country
Self-determination the concepr that ethincities have the right to govern themselves
Nation-state a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Nationalism loyalty and devotion to a nationality
Centripetal force an attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
Multi ethnic state a state that contains more than one ethnicity
Multi national state a multi ethnic state in which two ethnic groups have traditions of self determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognising one another as nationalities
Ethnic cleansing a process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnicly homogenous region
Balkanized a term describing a small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because of ethnicity feuds
Balkanization the process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
State an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has conrtol over its internal and foreign affairs
Sovereignty independence from control of its internal affairs by other states
City-state a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside
Colonialism the effort by one country to establish settlements and to impose its principles on such territory
Boundary an invisible line marking the extent of a state's territory
Compact state a country in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary greatly
Prorupted state a compact state with a large projecting extension
Elongated states states with a long and narrow shape
Fragmented state a state that includes several discontinous pieces of territory
Perforated state a state that completely surrounds another one
Landlocked state a state that lacks a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by other countries
Frontier a zone where no state exercises complete political control
Unitary state a state that places most power in the hands of central government officals
Federal state a state that allocates strong power to units of local government within the country
Balance of power a condition of roughly equal strength between opposing alliances
Development the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
MDC (relatively developed country)(developed country) a country that has progressed further along the development continuum
LDC (developing country) a country that has made little progress and expects to continue
Gross Domestic Product the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country usually within a year
Primary sector the portion of the economy concerned with extracting materials from the earth
Secondary sector the portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing of materials
Tertiary sector the provision of goods and servives to people in exchange for payment
Productivity the value ot a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
Value added the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
Literacy rate the percentage of a country's people who can read and write
Structural adjustment program economic policies that create conditions encouraging international trade
Created by: juliac
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