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Chapter11 s&lprep

liquid and solid preparations

Elixir A drug that is dissolved in a solution of alcohol and water. Elixirs are sweetened and flavored and are taken orally. ex: dimetapp elixir
Emulsion A mixture of fats and oils in water. ex: soyacol emulsion
Liniment A drug combined with oil, soap, alcohol, or water. Liniments are applied externally, using friction, to produce a feeling of heat or warmth. ex: heat liniment
Lotion An aqueous preparation that contains suspended ingredients. Lotions are used to treat external skin conditions. They work to soothe, protect, and moisten the skin and to destroy harmful bacteria. ex: Caladryl lotion
Solution A liquid preparation that contains one or more completely dissolved substances. The dissolved substance is known as the solute, and the liquid in which it is dissolved in is the solvent. ex: polysporin ophthalmic solution
Spirit A drug combined with an alcoholic solution that is volatile (a substance that is volatile evaporates readily) ex: aromatic spirit of ammonia
Spray a fine stream of medicated vapor, usually used to treat nose and throat conditions ex: dristan nasal spray
suspension a drug that contains solid insoluble drug particles in a liquid; the preparation must be shaken before administration. example: Amoxicillin oral suspension
syrup a drug dissolved in a solution of sugar, water, and sometime a flavoring of disguise an unpleasant taste ex: Robitussin cough syrup
Tuncture a drug dissolved in a solution in a of alcohol or alcohol and water. wx: tincture of iodine.
chewable tablet a powdered drug that has been flavored and pressed into a disc. Chewable tablets are often used for antacids, antiflatulents, and childern's medications. ex: pepto-bismol chewable tablets.
sublingual tablet a powered drug that has been pressed into a disc and is designed to dissolve under the tongue which permits its rapid absorption into the blood stream ex: nitroglycerin sublingual tablets
eneric-coated tablets a tablet coate with a substance that prevents it from dissolving until it reaches the intestines. the coating protects the drug from being destroyed by gastric juices and prevents it from irritating the stomach lining. to prevent the active ingrediants
capsule a drug contained in a gelatin capsule that is water-soluble and functions to prevent the patient from tasting the drug ex: benadryl capsule
sustained-release capsule a capsule that contains granules that dissolve at different rates to provide a gradual and continuous release of medication. ex: contac 12 hour sustained-release
caplet a drug contained in an oblong tablet with a smooth coating to make swallowing easier ex: advil caplets
lozenge a drug contained in a candy-like substance. lozenges are circular and are designed to dissolve on the tongue. ex: chloraseptic throat lozenge.
cream a drug combined in a base that is generally non-greasy, resulting in a semisolid preparation. creams are applied externally to the skin. ex: cortisone topical cream
ointment a drug with an oil base, resulting in a semi-solid preparation ointments are applied externally to the skin ex: cortisporin topical ointment
suppository a drug mixed with a firm base, such a cocoa butter, that is designed to melt at body temperature. a suppository is shaped into a cylinder or a cone for easy insertion into a cavity, such as the rectum or vagina ex: preparation H suppository
transdermal patch a patch with an adhesive backing, which contains a drug, that is applied to the skin. the drug enters the circulation after being absorbed through the skin. ex: nitroglycerin patches
Created by: taylerhosey