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Dr. Alegre

A&P1 Lec Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
*1. Name the two major components of the integumentary system. Cutaneous membrane and accessory structures
*2. Name the component that is compromised of the epidermis ( superficial epithelium ) and the dermis ( underlying connective tissue ). *2. Cutaneous membrane
*3. Name the five layers of the epidermis. *3. Stratum corneum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum spinosum, Stratum germinativum
*4. Name the epidermal layer that is water resistant, not water proof. This layer covers all exposed skin excluding the anterior surface of the eyes. *4. Stratum corneum
*5. Name the stratum where large amounts of keratin and keratohyalin are produced. At this level, cells have stopped dividing. *5. Stratum granulosum
*6. Name the stratum that contains large basal cells. This stratum forms epidermal ridges that connect to the dermal papillae. *6. Stratum germinativum
*7. Name the stratum that houses melanocytes and Merkle cells. *7. Stratum germinativum
*8. Name the function that Merkle cells serve. *8. They are responsible for sensitivity to touch.
*9. Name what accounts for different skin colors. *9. Different levels of melanocyte activity.
*10. What makes an individual an albino? *10. Albinos have a normal distribution of melanocytes, but these cells are incapable of producing melanin.
*11. Name the thick, clear stratum which covers the stratum granulosum. It is also called thick skin. *11. Stratum lucidum
*12. Name two areas of the body where thick skin is found. *12. Palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
*13. Name the dense granules of the cytoplasm that promote dehydration of the cell. *13. Keratohyalin
*14. Name the component of the cutaneous membrane contains the capillaries and sensory neurons that supply the skin’s surface. *14. Dermis
*15. Name the tissue the comprises the papillary layer. *15. Areolar
*16. Name the layer of skin that is interwoven with the connective tissue fibers of the reticular layer. *16. Hypodermis
*17. Name the component that is comprised of hair, nails, and the exocrine glands. *17. Accessory structures
*18. Name the two types of sweat glands located in the integumentary System. *18. Merocrine and apocrine glands
*19. Name the sweat glands also called the eccrine glands. They are found throughout the body, especially concentrated in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. These are also responsible for sensible perspiration. *19. Merocrine glands
*20. Name two functions of the merocrine sweat glands. *20. They cool off the skin’s surface along with excreting water and electrolytes.
*21. Name the type of perspiration in which an individual loses approximately 500 mL a day. *21. Insensible perspiration
*22. Name the sweat glands that begin secreting at puberty and provide a nutrient source for bacteria. *22. Apocrine glands
*23. Name the sweat glands found in the armpits and groin. *23. Apocrine glands
*24. Name the sweat glands that the mammary glands are classified under. *24. Apocrine glands
*25. Name the sweat glands that produce oils and waxes. *25. Sebaceous glands
*26. Name the sweat glands found in the external auditory canal. *26. Ceruminous glands
*27. Name the two layers that are found in hair that are comprised of hard, keratin cells. These two layers are responsible for hairs’ stiffness. *27. Cuticle and cortex
*28. Name the core layer of hair which contains flexible, soft keratin. *28. Medulla
*29. Name the deepest part of the hair follicle which is responsible for hair production. *29. Matrix
*30. Name the cell responsible for variation in hair color. *30. Melanocytes
*31. Name the part of the nail that is the visible portion. *31. Body
*32. Name the part of the nail that the visible portion covers. *32. Bed
*33. Name the part of the nail where nail production occurs. *33. Root
*34. Name the numbered step of injury and repair when bleeding and inflamation occurs. *34. Step 1
*35. Name the numbered step of injury and repair when a clot or scab forms. This occurrence limits the invasion of more microorganisms. *35. Step 2
*36. Name the numbered step of injury and repair when fibroblast activity leads to the appearance of collagen fibers and ground substance. *36. Step 3
*37. Name the numbered step of injury and repair when there is the formation of Inflexible, fibrous scar tissue. The healing process is now considered complete. *37. Step 4
*38. Name six effects that the aging process has on the integumentary system *38. Epidermis thins, Dermal blood supply decreases,Glandular activity decreases -causing dryness, Number of Langerhans cells decrease- causing a decrease in immunity, Melanocyte production decreases, Vitamin production decreases ( about 75% )
*1. Name the bone shape that is long and slender. Examples of these are arm, forearm, thigh, leg, palms of hands, soles of feet, fingers, and toes. *1. Long bones
*2. Name the bone shape that is small and boxy. Examples of these are carpals and tarsals. *2. Short bones
*3. Name the bone shape that have roughly parallel surfaces. Examples ofthese are the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula. *3. Flat bones
*4. Name the bone shape that is comprised of complex shapes, notches, and ridged surfaces. Examples of these are vertebrae, pelvis, and several skull bones. *4. Irregular bones
*5. Name the bone shape that is flat, small, and irregularly shaped. These are also referred to as Wormian bones. Examples of these are found between the flat bones of the skull. *5. Sutural bones
*6. Name the bone shape that are flat, small, and shaped somewhat like a sesame seed. These develop inside tendons. Examples of these are found near the joints of the knees, hands, and feet. *6. Seamoid bones
*7. Name the most abundant mineral in the human body. A typical individual usually contains 1-2 kg of this. *7. Calcium
*8. Name the part of the bone that is the extended tubular shaft. *8. Diaphysis
*9. Name the part of the bone that is the expanded area at each end. *9. Epiphysis
*10. Name the part of the bone where diaphysis and epiphysis meet. *10. Metaphysis
*11. Name the loose connective tissue that is the cavity of the diaphysis. *11. Bone marrow
*12. Name the cartilage that narrows until it disappears. This disappearance signals the end of bone growth. *12. Epiphyseal
*13. Name the incomplete cellular level that lines the marrow cavity. It also covers the trabeculae of spongy bone. *13. Endosteum
*14. Name another term also used for the marrow cavity. *14. Medullary cavity
*15. Name used for a mature bone cell. *15. Osteocyte
*16. Name the area that each osteocyte occupies. *16. Lucuna
*17. Name the narrow passageways that connect osteocytes for purposes of nutrient supply and waste disposal. *17. Canaliculi
*18. Name the basic functional unit of mature compact bone. Also referred to as Haversian system. *18. Osteon
*19. Name the cells that actually take organic components and produce the matrix via osteogenisis. *19. Osteoblasts
*20. Name the cells that are multi-nucleated. *20. Osteoclasts
*21. Name the cells that break-down and remove bone matrix. *21. Osteoclasts
*22. Name the process of bone erosion, also called resorption. *22. Osteolysis
*23. Name the soft matrix that has not had calcium salts deposited yet. *23. Osteoid
*24. Name two types of osseous tissue. *24. Compact bone and spongy bone
*25. Name the type of bone which is thickest where stresses arrive from a limited range of directions. *25. Compact bone
*26. Name activity which is necessary to maintain normal bone structure. *26. Exercise
*27. Name the type of bone that forms an open network of struts and plates. Also referred to as cancellous. *27. Spongy bone
*28. Name the structure that the struts and plates of spongy bone form. *28. Trabeculae
*29. Name the process of replacing tissue with bone. *29. Ossification
*30. Name two types of ossification. *30. Intramembranous and endochondral
*31. Name the type of ossification that occurs when bone develops directly from mesenchymal cells or fibrous connective tissue. *31. Intramembranous
*32. Name the type of ossification that are responsible for the formation of dermal bones. *32. Intramembranous
*33. Name three examples of dermal bones. *33. Skull, clavicle, and mandible
*34. Name the type of ossification in which bone replaces existing cartilage. *34. Endochondral
*35. Name the process of deposition of calcium salts. This process happens during ossification but also occurs in other tissues. *35. Calcification
*36. Name the type of bone growth that increases a bone’s diameter. *36. Appositional
*37. Name the occurrence that happens which triggers the parathyroid gland to release PTH into the bloodstream. *37. Ca ion concentration falls below normal levels
*38. Name 3 effects that the release of PTH ensures. *38. Stimulate osteoclast activity, Increase intestinal absorption of Ca, Decrease Ca excretion by the kidneys
*39. Name the occurrence that happens which triggers the thyroid gland to release calcitonin. *39. Ca ion concentration rises above normal levels
*40. Name 2 effects that the release of calcitonin ensures. *40. Inhibit osteoclast activity, Increase Ca excretion by the kidneys
*41. Name 3 hormones that are released to stimulate bone growth at puberty. *41. Sex hormones, growth hormones, and thyroid hormones
*42. Name the condition that is the result of the over-production of growth hormones before puberty. *42. Gigantism
*43. Name the type of bone fracture that is completely internal, keeping the ends of the bone closed. *43. Closed/ simple fracture
*44. Name the type of bone fracture where only one side of the shaft is broken and the other is bent. *44. Greenstick fracture
*45. Name the condition that is linked to inadequate ossification. Quite common as a individual ages. *45. Osteopenia
*46. Name the condition that entails a loss in bone mass that prohibits normal, every-day functioning. *46. Osteoporosis
*1. Name five functions of the skeletal system. *1. Support, Protection, Storage of minerals and lipids, Blood cell production, Leverage
*2. Name the number of cranial bones present in the skull. *2. 8
*3. Name the cranial bones. *3. Frontal – 1, Parietal – 2, Occipital – 1, Temporal – 2, Sphenoid – 1, Ethmoid – 1,
*4. Name the number of facial bones present in the skull. *4. 14
*5. Name the facial bones. *5. Maxillary – 2, Palatine – 2, Nasal – 2, Inferior Nasal Conchae – 2, Vomer – 1, Zygomatic – 2, Lacrimal – 2, Mandible – 1,
*6. Name the number of associated bones present in the skull. *6. 7
*7. Name the associated bones. *7. Auditory ossicles – 6, Hyoid – 1
*8. Name the largest facial bone. *8. Maxillary
*9. Name the depression that separates the condylar and coronoid processes. *9. Mandibular notch
*10. Name the four major sutures of the skull. *10. Coronal suture, Sagittal suture, Lamboid suture, Squamous suture,
*11. Name the location of the coronal suture. *11. Goes across the frontal bone.
*12. Name the location of the sagittal suture. *12. Goes between the parietal bones; runs from the coronal suture to the lamboid suture.
*13. Name the location of the lamboid suture. *13. Goes around the occipital bone.
*14. Name the location of the squamous suture. *14. Goes around the temporal bones.
*15. Name three functions of the sphenoid bone. *15. Forms the cranium floor, Connects the cranial and facial bones, Acts as a cross-brace and strengthens the sides of the skull
*16. Name the fossa that is the depression within the sella turcica. *16. Hypophyseal
*17. Name the gland that lies within the hypophyseal fossa. *17. Pituitary gland
*18. Name the bone that is the location of the crista galli. *18. Ethmoid bone
*19. Name the canal that provides passage for the carotid artery. *19. Carotid canal
*20. Name the foramen between the occipital and temporal bones that provides passage for a very large vessel. *20. Jugular foramen
*21. Name the attachment site for muscles that extend or rotate the head. *21. Mastoid process
*22. Name the attachment site for ligaments that support the hyoid bone to the pharynx and tongue. *22. Styloid process
*23. Name the foramen that provides passage for facial nerves that control facial muscles. *23. Stylomastoid foramen
*24. Name the gland that is responsible for lubricating the surface of the eyes. *24. Lacrimal gland
*25. Name the depression of the frontal bone that marks the location of the lacrimal gland. *25. Lacrimal fossa
*26. Name the connection between the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity. *26. Foramen magnum
*27. Name the number of cervical vertebrae. *27. 7
*28. Name the number of thoracic vertebrae. *28. 12
*29. Name the number of lumbar vertebrae. *29. 5
*30. Name the vertebras that consist of five bones which begin fusing after puberty. *30. Sacrum
*31. Name the vertebras that consist of three-five bones which usually begin fusing about age twenty-six. *31. Coccyx
*32. Name the bone created by the fusion of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2). *32. Prominent dens
*33. Name the vertebras that are considered primary curves because they appear late in fetal development. *33. Thoracic and sacral vertebras
*34. Name the vertebras that are considered secondary curves because they appear several months after birth. *34. Cervical and lumbar vertebras
*35. Name the disease that is an exaggerated thoracic curvature. *35. Kyphosis
*36. Name the disease that is an exaggerated lumbar curvature. *36. Lordosis
*37. Name the disease that is an abnormal lateral curvature. *37. Scoliosis
*38. Name the three processes of the sternum. *38. Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process
*39. Name the number of pairs of ribs. *39. 12
*40. Name the number of pairs of “true” ribs. *40. 1 – 7
*41. Name the number of pairs of “false” ribs. *41. 8 – 12
*42. Name the number of pairs of “floating” ribs. *42. 11 – 12
*1. Name the number of bones found in the axial skeleton. *1. 80
*2. Name the number of bones found in the appendicular skeleton. *2. 126
*3. Name the total number of bones found in the human body. *3. 206
*4. Name the bones that form the pectoral girdle. *4. Clavicles – 2, Scapulae – 2
*5. Name the bone that is the medial end of the clavicle. *5. Sternal
*6. Name the bone that is the distal end of the clavicle. *6. Acromial
*7. Name the bone that is the broader end of the clavicle. *7. Acromial
*8. Name the medial tubercle of the humerus. *8. Lesser tubercle
*9. Name the lateral tubercle of the humerus. *9. Greater tubercle
*10. Name the bone that contains the olecranon. *10. Ulna
*11. Name the two processes where the ulna and radius attach to the wrist. *11. Styloid process of the ulna, Styloid process of the radius
*12. Name the cavity where the scapula articulates with the humerus. *12. Glenoid cavity
*13. Name the anterior process of the scapula. *13. Coracoid process
*14. Name the posterior process of the scapula. *14. Acromion process
*15. Name the number of carpals. *15. 16
*16. Name the bone that sits anterior to the triquetrum. *16. Pisiform
*17. Name the number of metacarpals. *17. 10
*18. Name the number of phalanges found in the hand. *18. 14
*19. Name the bone also referred to as the ossa coxae. *19. Hip bones
*20. Name the three bones that form the ossa coxae. *20. Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
*21. Name the bone that you rest on when in a sitting position. *21. Ischial tuberosity
*22. Name an important function of the lesser, true pelvis. *22. Birth canal
*23. Name the longest, heaviest bone in the human body. *23. Femur
*24. Name the prominence that runs along the posterior surface of the femur. *24. Linea aspera
*25. Name the type of bone classification that the patella falls into. *25. Sesamoid
*26. Name the process that provides lateral stability from the leg to the ankle. *26. Lateral malleolus
*27. Name the number of bones found in the tarsus. *27. 7
*28. Name the largest tarsal bone. *28. Calcaneus
*29. Name the number of phalanges found in the foot. *29. 14
*30. Name the proper name for the big toe. *30. Hallux
Created by: shresthasun