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World Religions

QuestionAnswer
Anti-Semitism a hatred of Jews and Judaism
Ashkenazi a name for central and eastern European Jews descended from medieval German Jews
Bar mitzvah "son of the commandments” a Judaic initiation rite marking the transition of a boy (13) to religious maturity.
Bat mitzvah- "daughter of the commandments” a Judaic initiation rite marking the transition of a girl (12) to religious maturity.
Hanukkah “dedication” a Jewish festival commemorating the rededication of the Temple at Jerusalem in 165 BC. Also, Festival of lights, observed in Nov.-Dec.
halakah "to go" in the sense of the way things should be done; Judaic law and legal system
kashrut that which is permitted or fit (kosher); Jewish dietary laws regulating the choice, preparation, and eating of food and drink
minyan "number" Ten adults required to form a quorum for Judaic worship. Ten families for congregation.
mitzvah divine commands and good deeds. 613 bible commands.
Rosh Hashanah "head of the year" Jewish new year (sept. & oct.) first day of the Ten Days of Penitence; Day of Remembrance.
synagogue "assembly" Jewish house of study and worship
Talmud "learning"; Judaic law and tradition composed of Mishnah and Gemara. Two talmuds: the Palestinian (jerusalem) and the Babylonian. [more authoritative]
Tanakh acronym for 3 major divisions of Hebrew bible: Torah (the law), Nevi'im (the prophets), and Kethuvim (the writings)
Torah "instruction"; divine revelation of law at Sinai; Pentateuch and the Hebrew bible, oral law (Mishnah), and entire body of Judaic teaching.
Yom Kippur Day of Atonement; last day of Ten Days of Penitence; most solemn day in Jewish calendar.
Arian controversy theological disagreement among christians of fourth century CE over question of the nature of jesus. Followers of Arius claimed jesus was entirely human, not divine. this view was rejected by the christian church at the council of Nicaea in 325
Ecumenical council gathering or meeting of bishops from around the world to decide on matters of religious doctrine or practice
Fundamentalism belief system/way of understanding christian faith & life that puts partic. emphasis on words of Bible & its place n directing one's passage thru life. adherent of belief system or who rejects any of the tools of biblical criticism or interpretation
Gospel New testament book. "good news" refers to christian beliefs that God sent a savior and redemption is available for all.
Heresy denial of defined doctrine of faith
Nicene Creed council of Nicaea in 325. Statement of faith that enumerates specific Christian beliefs about the nature of God and Church
Pope Title for bishop of Rome. Roman Catholicism ,pope is supreme authority of Church and its spiritual leader.
Synoptic Gospel Matthew, Mark, Luke.
Allah God. No plural
Caliph "successor": title of leader of Islam after Muhammad's death
Five Pillars of Islam specific & primary obligations for life of submission for Muslims. Shahada, prayer Salat, ritual prayer Zakat, alms giving Ramadan, holy month of fasting Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca
Hadith body of tradition concerning actions and saying of Muhammad
Imam religious leader
Jihad holy war; struggle in name of the faith; exertion
Jinn spirits capable of assuming human and animal shapes.
Muezzin one to call Muslims to prayer
Quran sacred text of Islam
Sharia right way of living set forth in Quran
Shiite follower of Ali leadership
Shirk idolatry; polytheism; association; mistaking something other than Allah as God
Sufism mystical sect of Islam dating from 8th cent.
Sunni (Sunnite) follows the Sunna
Sura "chapter"; section of Quran
Wudu ritual cleansing prior to prayer
Created by: mariah_mrod
 

 



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