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RLS 121


crusade holy war/religious reasoning
new ideal of piety 1.)martyr- counter cultural 2.)monk- counter cultural 3.)the knight- defending culture
crusade motivations 1.)material gains 2.)spiritual attainment
Saladin (1136-1193) 1.)Kurd 2.)response- Jihad 3.)pan-Islamic 4.)recapture of Jerusalem (1187) 5.)legacy= hero/Sadam
Usamah ibn Munquidn 1.)Franks "pilgrims" 2.)multifaceted conflict 3.)brutality 4.)conversion 5.)religion and culture 6.)blessings and curses
Sunnu-Shi'i conflict East: 1.)Persian culture resurgence + Shi'i political base = new dynasties 2.)buyids 3.)twelver shi'i West: 1.)Fatimids- Egypt 2.)Sevener Shi'ites 3.)caliph Mu'izz
Turks -Pre-Islamic confederation -conversion in the 700s -Ghazie-> take power-> 'Abbasids (Baghdad)-> Fatimids (Cairo) -Ayyubids (1171)-> Mamluks (1249-1517)
Mongols -post Islamic confederation -Jenghiz Khan (1107-1227) -Hulegu Khan (1216-1265) -Baghdad
Shajar al-Durr 1.)Sultanah 2.)wife of last ayyubid Nagma al-Din 3.)ruled from 1249 4.)married Mamluk Aubek (d. 1257)
Mamluks 1.)childhood 10-12 raised in barraks solidarity 2.)owner trains the mamluk 3.)elite soldiers: a meritocracy 4.)control beyond Egypt: Syria, Levant, and Hijaz 5.)decline: affluence and neglected gun powder
decline of caliphate: Ahmad ibn Taymiyyin (1263-1328) -mongols-> Damascus-> Cairo-> imprisoned -Hanbali -critiqued sufis -reinvigorate caliphate -rejected role of Christians in society
Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006) -B.A. philosophy: Cairo University (1943) -journalist short stories (1938) -first novel (1939) -historical topics -Nobel prize (1988)
Midaq Alley -published 1947 -setting 1.)"Islamic Cairo" 2.)poverty with dignity 3.)WWII British rule presence -social change -British rule -technology
modernity: Christendom 1.)reconquista (1492) 2.)new world (1492) 3.)reformation (1517)
Dar al-Islam 1,)Constantinople (1453) 2.)Ottoman ascent (1517) 3.)caliph in doubt (1200-1800s)
causes of Middle Eastern conflict 1.)incomplete transition from religiously-based communication to modern day states 2.)belief of many Middle Eastern people that their governments are illegitimate 3.)involvement of outside governments in the Middle East
occident (west) vs. orient (east) 1.)power -"modernity": west ascends 2.)identity -"modernity": Islamic disunity vs. nation-state
Napoleon's invasion 1.)strange manifestos 2.)Ottoman weakness 3.)"Egyptian" response
the British invasion (1802-1882) 1.)Lord Cromer (1841-1917) -consul general (1883-1907) -western activities: missionaries, schools, Suez canal 2.)Ahmad 'Urabi (1870-1881) -big business
Mehmet 'Ali (1768-1849) the Egyptian 1.)military:conscripted copts, challenged Ottomans and rem Ahmad 'Urabi (1841-1911) 2.)cultural: Paris -translation movement -son abolished Jizyan (poll/head tax)- non muslims -agricultural reform
Khedive Isma'il (1863-1879) 1.)westernizing projects (Suez canal) 2.)growing dependence on Europe -debt to fuel modernization -1862: $3 million -1879: $93 million
intellectual critique of orient and occident: the west force: 1.)military (Napoleon) 2.)economic(Britain/France) 3.)diplomatic (Cromer) 4.)technological superiority (Britain)
intellectual critique of orient and occident: the east response: 1.)military reform (Mehmet 'Ali) 2.)economic reform (Isma'il) 3.)intellectual initiative (Mehmet 'Ali) 4.)rebellion ('Urabi) 5.)internal identity search
viewing the occident: the translation movement Tahtawi (1801-1872) -Paris and al-Azhar -don't credit Christianity with western success
Abduh's view of history -dies in 1905 -Grand Mufti at al-Azhar -collaborates with Afghani in Paris
Protestant reformation free thinking: unbound by tradition (taqlid) -protestants are virtually Muslim -resist taqlid -reopen ijtihad (reevaluate meaning or shar'ia)
the Muslim brotherhood 1.)Hasan al-Banna (1906-1966) -founder -social movement 2.)Sayyid Qutb (1906-1949) -leader of Muslim brotherhood -calls for Jihad -God's sovereignty on Earth
Created by: maxief



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