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2010 WHAP FInal

2010 WHAP Final Review

What moved the human species towards a more elaborate society? agriculture
What was the revolution that ocurred in 10,000 BCE, which included better tool use, somewhat more elaborate social organization, and more population pressure? Neolithic Revolution
Who were the "mean people? people who were at the lowest social level without any meaningful skills
The political structure of the Han Dynasty differed from that of the Qin Dynasty by stressing __________. expansion of powers of the bureaucracy
What religion did Ashoka convert to and ultimately spread through India? Buddhism
Indian spherical shrines to Buddha were called __________. stupas
Who was India's greatest ruler during the Classical Era? Ashoka
By 550 BCE, who established a massive Persian empire across the northern Middle Easy and into northwestern India? Cyrus the Great
What type of government did Greece develop during 800-600 BCE? city-states
What type of government was the Greek city-state of Sparta governed by? oligarchy (singularly militaristic aristocracy)
What Mesopotamian civilization did Hammurabi's code come from? Babylonian
What two religions had the most lasting impact on the society of India as a whole? Hinduism & Buddhism
With which dynasty did the idea of the Mandate of Heaven begin? Zhou
What was the most emphasized in Greek art? human form
Why was Athenian philosopher, Socrates killed? Athenian government thought he was undermining political loyalty
Why did Constantine adopt Christianity? to unite the Roman Empire
Islam was not the first universalistic religion to take root in Africa, Christianity took root in __________. Nubia & Ethiopia
Socrates encouraged _________. using skeptical questioning to figure things out
Which of the following was not an aspect of the Qin Dynasty? creation of the Mandate of Heaven
What is a stateless society? no central political power, but ruled by local traditions
Which of the following was once a form of government in Ancient Greece? democracy, oligarchy, tyranny, monarchy
What were the 12 Tables? the first law codes of the Roman Republic
Why was the Roman Empire split into East and West? They decided they couldn't control such a large empire.
Why did Christianity appeal as a worldwide religion? It held similar beliefs to other major religious of the time and preached popular salvation.
What was one of the most famous buildings Justinian had built? Hagia Sophia
What role did slaves play in Rome and Greece? They performed household tasks such as the tutoring of children, worked in mines, and were also used for agricultural work.
Who defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours in 732? Charles (The Hammer) Martel
What happened to Buddhism as it moved out of India? It developed strong roots in East Asia, becoming the Mahayana strain of Buddhism.
What did the Magna Carta, or Great Charter, do? It confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims and limited the king's power.
Characterize the Holy Roman Empire. -not united under common nationality/language -split into Germany, Austria, Italy in the late 1800s -largest political unit of Middle Ages -power localized, didn't have strong centralized government; granted citizenship to men in conquered territories
What was the great metropolis capital city of the Aztec empire? Tenochtitlan
__________ were beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames rooted to the lake floor built for agriculture. chinampas
Aztec human sacrifice was performed __________. to keep the universe going
How was Christianity primarily spread to Eastern Europe? Orthodox missionaries were sent from Constantinople
Who was Justinian? Byzantine emperor
What are the social aspects of the Arabs prior to the introduction of ISlam? -slavery utilized -wealth/status based off of possession of animals, pasturage, and water rights -common incidences of feuds based on land/water rights -grouped into larger tribal units, but seldom lived together
What are the reasons that Islam was able to appeal to people of so many different cultures? -strong sense of community in the ummah -universal elements in Islam -Muhammad's willingness to accept validity of earlier Judaic/Christian revelations -appeal of the Five Pillars of Faith
What are the reasons for political disruption of the Abbasid Empire prior to the rise of the Buyids? -failure to establish principal of succession satisfactory to all parties -failure of an agricultural economy -difficulties of communication and moving armies over great distances of the empire -tendency of populations to retain regional identities
How was Islam spread to North Africa? conquest
How was Islam spread to West Africa? trade
What technological advancement was not from the Tang/Song dynasty? paper
What was the attempt to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor called? Taika reforms
Who administered examinations to students from the Chinese government schools? Ministry of Rites
Who are the jinshi? person who passed the very difficult exams on Chinese literature
What class was more attracted to Chan Buddhism? the elite
What did the Jurchens do? -founded the Qin Dynasty -succeeded the Liao from Northern China -annexed most of the Yellow River Basin -forced the Song to flee south
What are junks? Chinese seafaring vessels
What did the samurais do? protected their lord
What is a difference between the codes of the samurai and the codes of the knights? ritual suicide
What is flying money? credit vouchers given to merchants that could be presented for reimbursement
What is sinification? the extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions, especially Korea & Japan
During which Chinese dynasty was Hangzhou called "the most noble and the best in the world"? Song
What were the effects of footbinding? -restricted freedom -causes pain -limited job opportunities -popular with the gentry class
What religion played a key role in the development of Korea and Vietnam? Buddhism
What was the name of the ritual suicide practiced by Japan's elite warrior class? Sepukku
A major difference between European and Japanese feudalism in medieval times was __________. There were much fewer agricultural workers in Japan than Europe.
Wendi did all of the following: -stuck an alliance between his daughter and the ruler of the northern Zhou empire -lowered taxes -established granaries -warded off famine
What did a majority of Europeans believe was the greatest threat to Christian Europe? Islam
Under Abbasid rule, the Islamic faith __________. expanded
Contrary to the Christian belief of equality for all souls, the middle ages signaled an increase of persecution mostly towards __________. serfs & womens
Along with famine and a slowing development of technology, what was also a major contributor to the decline in the Western European economy? Black Death
The Mongol Empire was divided into how many khanates? 4
How did Islam spread to Southeast Asia? Sufis & merchants
What clan is the prophet Muhammad from? Quraysh
What was Cheng Ho most known for? Muslim eunuch and admiral who led expeditions throughout the Indian Ocean
Who were wandering mystics who sought a personal union with Allah? Sufis
What were most of the Sudanic states led by? A council of elders of the same family
What are important aspects of Mongol Society? -horseback riding -herding goats and sheep -warfare -trading in urban centers
What events occurred in 1421 that changed the course of history? -fall of Islamic world -blocking of the Silk Road, which led to the discovery of the Americas -civil wars in Egypt which led to the Mamluks nationalizing the spice trade, blocking trade eastward -King Henry V married Catherine
What was the name of the language that was basically Bantu with a large number of Arabian words mixed used in Africa? Swahili
Medieval art and architecture were intended to serve __________. the glory of God
What are aspects of European feudalism? -inhibited development of strong central states but reduced local warfare -system of economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers -boosted by Charlemagne adn William the Conquerer -used by kings to build their own power
Why did the Mayans practice human sacrifice? They believed they owed a blood debt to gods.
What city became the center of Inca power? Cuzco
What was Inca socialism? The Spanish view of the Incas where every person contributed to the whole
What are the clans of the Aztecs? calpulli
What did the Aztecs do subjugate the people they conquered? -make them surrender lands -require taxes to be paid (tribute) -force them to perform military service -provide people for sacrifice
Who are janissaries? infantry troops
How are the Ottomans and the Safavid alike? Both rose to prominence as the frontier warrior champions of a highly militant strain of Islam.
How did Suleyman achieve an army so capable and disciplined that "ten thousand could be lead by a single thread"? He took the sons of Christian families as his soldiers, converted them to Islam, educated and trained them to be loyal to him.
Who and what were the purposes of the mullahs? local mosque officials and prayer leaders who were also supervised by the sate and given some support from it - were required to curse the first three caliphs and mention the Safavid ruler in the Friday sermon.
What did (William) John Harvey do? He demonstrated the circular movement of blood in animals.
Name technological improvements in the 15th century. -sailing ships -navigational devices -gunnery -metalwork
Where did the Renaissance begin? Italy
In the 30 Years War, pitting German Protestants against the Holy Roman Emperor, who backed each side? -Lutheran Sweden (Germany) -Spain (Holy Roman Emperor)
What was the reason England sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in as early as 1497? to find another route to spice-rich India
In 1517, who nailed 95 Theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg? Martin Luther
Growing commercialization created the beginnings of a new __________ in the west. proletariat
Which country first took an exploration initiative and where were their first expeditions? Portugal; African coast
After the expulsion of the Tartars (Mongols), what happened to Russia's citizens economically? Common peasants fell into debt and had to accept servile status to noble land owners
Peter the Great attempted to redefine the Russian Empire by __________. drawing from Western influence
In an effort to maintain a hold on the tsarist aristocracy, Ivan IV __________. killed off boyars who he suspected of conspiracy
The Treaty of Torsedillas drew a hypothetical north-south line around the globe, therefore, __________. Portugal got newly discovered lands to the east giving Brazil to the Portuguese.
What was Bartolome de Las Casas view towards the Native Americans? He believed they were rational people who meant no harm.
In three centuries, Spain and Portugal created large colonial empires in the Americas. What was the most important things American colonies provided for their Iberian mother countries? provided a basis of power, a vital place to expand world economy as suppliers of precious minerals and certain crops, which helped the economy.
A world economy during the 1450-1750 time period is __________. based on the control of seas including the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean
Proletariats are __________. people without access to land
Which groups of people were involved in the Battle of Lepanto? Spanish/HRE and Ottomans
The definitions of mercantilism is __________. policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver
The year the Ottomans captured Constantinople under the leadership of Mehmed II was __________. 1453
Created by: Tiffanyy