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(Chadmw) Chapter8&9

(Willis) Chapters 8 & 9

Sicily An island off the southwestern part of Italy that both Rome & Carthage wanted to control. This conflict of interests led to the first Punic War.
Apennines A mountain range that runs from northern to southern Italy.
Latium A plain in central Italy that the city of Rome is located on.
Tiber River A river in central Italy that the city of Rome was built next to, giving it a supply of fresh water & access to the Mediterranean Sea.
Etruria An ancient country in central Italy that was home to the Etruscans, a people who greatly influenced the culture of Rome.
Romulus & Remus The twin brothers who founded the city of Rome, according to one legend. As babies, they were abandoned near the Tiber River, rescued by a wolf, and raised by a shepherd.
Aeneas According to the epic poem the Aeneid, this Trojan hero fled Troy for Italy & united his Trojans with the local Latin people. They became the Romans & he became known as the "father " of the Romans.
Latins The people who lived in the area of Rome as early as 1000 B.C. Between 800 B.C. & 700 B.C. they banded together for protection in a community that became known as Rome.
Etruscans People who lived north of Rome in Etruria. They moved south & ruled Rome for more than 100 years, greatly influencing Roman culture in just about every way.
Tarquins Known for its cruelty, this Etruscan family ruled Rome until the Romans rebelled in 509 B.C.
Republic Form of government in which the leader is not a king or queen, but a person elected by citizens.
Legion A smaller unit of the Roman army made up of about 6,000 soldiers that was easier to control than the traditional Greek-style army. These helped make the Roman army difficult to defeat.
Carthage A large & rich ancient city on the coast of north Africa that was founded by the Phoenicians. It became an empire that controlled the Mediterranean sea until it fought the three Punic wars with its rival Rome.
Cannae A battle in southern Italy in 216 B.C., during the 2nd Punic War, where Hannibal's army overpowered the Roman forces & wiped them out.
Zama A battle in which Scipio's troops defeated the Carthaginians & ended the 2nd Punic War. Carthage was forced to give Spain to Rome, making Rome the new ruler of the western Mediterranean.
Cincinnatus A famous early Roman dictator who defeated a powerful enemy which threatened Rome. He ruled Rome briefly during the crisis & then gave back his power & returned to his farm.
Hannibal Carthaginian general & one of the greatest commanders in history. He marched an army, including war elephants, over the Alps into Italy to surprise the Romans & to begin the 2nd Punic War. He badly defeated the Romans at Trebbia, Trasimene & Cannae.
Scipio Roman general who was the first man who had the ability to stand up to Hannibal Barca during the 2nd Punic War. He invaded Carthage in 202 B.C. & defeated Hannibal at Zama, ending the war.
Patrician A wealthy landowner and member of the ruling class in ancient Rome.
Plebeian A member of the common people in ancient Rome.
Consul One of the two top government officials in ancient Rome.
Veto To reject.
Praetor An important government official in ancient Rome in charge of administering civil justice, like a judge.
Dictator In ancient Rome, a person who ruled with complete power temporarily during emergencies.
Rubicon A small river which Julius Caesar crossed on his march into Italy that began a civil war. The phrase "crossing the Rubicon" is used today to mean making a decision that you cannot take back.
Actium A battle off the west coast of Greece in which Octavian crushed the army and navy of Antony and Cleopatra in 31 B.C., establishing Octavian as ruler of Rome.
Julius Caesar One of the members of the First Triumvirate who ruled Rome along with Crassus and Pompey. He was assassinated in 44 B.C. on the “Ides of March,” not long after having himself declared dictator of Rome for life.
Octavian The Grandnephew of Julius Caesar who created the 2nd Triumvirate in 43 B.C. with two of Caesar's top generals, Antony & Lepidus. He went on to become Rome’s 1st emperor & one of the greatest rulers in Roman History for beginning the Pax Romana.
Antony A top general of Julius Caesar, he created the 2nd Triumvirate in 43 B.C. with Octavian & Lepidus. He allied himself with Cleopatra in the fight to rule Rome, turning most Romans against him.
Cicero A political leader, writer, & Rome's greatest public speaker. He argued against dictators & called for a representative government.
Augustus A title which means "the revered or majestic one," taken by Octavian when he became the emperor of Rome & used as a measure of success by all subsequent rulers.
Latifundia Any large ancient Roman agricultural estate that used a large number of peasant or slave laborers.
Triumvirate In ancient Rome, a government of three people ruling together.
Rhine River A river, which, along with the Danube River, was the eastern boundary of the Roman empire under Hadrian's rule.
Danube River A river, which, along with the Rhine River, was the eastern boundary of the Roman empire under Hadrian's rule.
Puteoli During the Roman Empire, this was one of the largest & most important port cities in Italy. It was located on the Bay of Naples.
Ostia During the Roman Empire, this was one of the largest & most important port cities in Italy. It was located at the mouth of the Tiber River.
Caligula A relative of Augustus, he became emperor after Tiberius. He was an extremely warped & cruel leader who suffered from mental illness & who bankrupted Rome. He was eventually murdered by the Praetorian Guard.
Nero An unfit and vicious man who ruled Rome after Claudius. He was remembered for his cruelty, including his abuse of Christians, the murder of his own mother, & as a possible culprit in the burning of Rome.
Hadrian One of the five "good emperors" who ruled Rome from A.D. 117-138 during a time of prosperity. He built a wall in Britain that bore his name & made Roman laws easier to understand.
Pax Romana The "Roman Peace." A long era of peace & prosperity in the Roman Empire begun by Augustus and continuing for nearly 200 Years.
Aqueduct A man-made channel built to carry water over long distances.
Currency Something that is used as a medium for exchange, such as a type of money.
Achievement Something that has been accomplished, especially through hard work, ability, or heroism.
Aspects Different ways in which something may be viewed or regarded.
Conclude To decide or draw a conclusion by using reason.
Sequencing The act of putting things in a time-related order.
Version A form or variation of something.
Virgil – A Famous Roman poet & author of the epic poem, the Aeneid.
Horace A Famous Roman poet who wrote odes & satires.
Galen A Greek doctor who brought many medical ideas to Rome, including the study of anatomy.
Ptolemy A Roman scientist who lived in Alexandria in Egypt. He studied the sky & mapped over 1,000 different stars, but he also taught that all heavenly bodies revolved around the earth, an idea that would not be proven wrong for hundreds of years.
Spartacus A gladiator who led a slave revolt against the Romans in Italy in 73 B.C. that defeated several Roman armies before being crushed.
Vault A curved structure of stone or concrete forming a ceiling or roof, usually in the form of an extended arch.
Satire A work of writing that pokes fun at human weaknesses.
Ode A poem that expresses strong emotions about life.
Anatomy The study of body structure.
Forum The open space in an ancient Roman city that served as the marketplace & public square for the assembly of the people. It was also the place where judicial and business affairs were conducted.
Gladiator In ancient Rome, a person, often a slave or captive, who was armed with a sword or other weapon and compelled to fight to the death in a public arena against another person or a wild animal, for the entertainment of the spectators.
Paterfamilias Meaning "father of the family," this was the name for the father as head of the household in ancient Rome.
Rhetoric The art of using speech to persuade, influence, or please an audience, usually in public speaking.
Constantinople The new capital of the Roman empire under the emperor Constantine. Today this city is called Istanbul.
Diocletian General who became emperor in A.D. 284. He attempted to stop the empire's decline by introducing reforms, such as dividing the empire into four administrative units, but his reforms failed.
Constantine A general who succeeded Diocletian as emperor in A.D. 312. He was the first Roman Emperor to become a Christian & he stopped the persecution of Christians. He also moved the Roman capital city to Byzantium, which he renamed after himself.
Theodosius The emperor who succeeded Constantine and ended the fighting with the Visigoths. He was the last emperor of a united Rome & officially split the empire into two halves.
Alaric The Visigoth leader who captured Rome in A.D. 410, the first time Rome had been conquered in 800 years.
Odoacer The Germanic general who ended the Western Roman Empire in A.D. 476 by overthrowing the western emperor, Romulus Augustulus.
Plague A disease that spreads quickly and kills many people.
Inflation A persistent & rapid rise in prices caused by an increase in the amount of money in use. This results in money being worth less.
Barter To exchange goods without using money.
Reform Change that tries to bring about an improvement.
Black Sea A sea between Europe & Asia that was important for trade.
Aegean Sea A part of the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Turkey that contains many islands.
Justinian An Emperor of the Byzantine Empire in A.D. 527. He nearly reunited the Roman Empire by conquering much of Western Europe & all of Northern Africa. He also simplified Roman Law.
Theodora Empress and wife of Justinian who helped her husband rule the Byzantine Empire until her death. She did much to help improve the rights of women.
Belisarius The general ordered by Justinian to lead the Byzantine army. He reorganized the army and replaced foot soldiers with soldiers mounted on horses. He almost succeeded in reuniting the Roman Empire for Justinian.
Tribonian He led a group of legal scholars ordered by Justinian to reform the law code. The group simplified the code, which became known as Justinian’s Code, so that it was more easily understood.
Mosaic A picture made from many bits of colored glass, tile, or stone.
Saint A Christian holy person.
Regent A person who acts as a temporary ruler.
Created by: chadmw