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Med. Term. Review2

Fractures, Bones, Muscles

closed bone does not go through the skin
open bone breaks through the skin (compound fracture)
nondisplaced broken bone ends remain in normal anatomical alignment
displaced broken bone ends are pulled out of their normal anatomical alignment
Colles' distal radius is broken falling onto an outstretched hand
comminuted bone is crushed into several pieces
compression vertebrae are compressed together when a fall occurs onto buttocks or a vertebra collapses in on itself because of disease
depressed cranium is fractured inward toward the brain
greenstick bone is broken on only one side
hairline very thin fracture line with the bone pieces together
oblique bone broken on an oblique angle
spiral bone broken in a spiral because of twisting force
transverse bone broken in transverse plane perpendicular to its long axis
ethmoid bone forms posterior nasal septum that divides the nasal cavity into right and left sides and forms medial walls of the eye sockets. (ethm/o-sieve)
vomer narrow wall of bone that forms inferior part of nasal septum and joins the sphenoid bone posteriorly
zygomatic bone forms each cheek bone
temporal bones form lower sides of cranium, contains an opening for external ear canal.
mastoid process a projection of each temporal bone that extends behind each ear
styloid process located inferiorally to temporal bones. This is where a point of attachment for tendons and muscles of the tongue and pharynx and for ligaments attach to the hyoid bone in the throat
sphenoid bone sphen/o-wedge shaped large irregularly shaped bone that forms part of the central base and sides of the cranium and posterior walls of eye sockets (holds the pituitary gland)
occipital bone forms posterior base of the cranium, contains the foramen magnum - a large opening that is round where the spinal cord passes through to join the brain
suture line where one cranial bone meets another
frontal bone forms forehead and top of cranium and ends at the coronal suture
parietal bones forms upper sides and upper posterior parts of the cranium (sagittal suture is located between these two bones)
hyoid bone flat, u-shaped bone in the anterior neck
ischium most inferior part of hip bones (seat bones - you sit on them!)
ilium most superior part of hip bones
suture joint located between 2 cranial bones, immovable, and contains no cartilage
symphysis joint slightly movable joint with a fibrocartilage pad or disk between the bones (vertebrae or pubic symphysis)
synovial joint fully movable joint. Examples are hinges and ball-and-sockets.
hinge allows motion in 2 directions (knee)
ball-and-socket allows motion in many directions (shoulder and hip). Bones that join here contain articular cartilage.
ligament joins 2 bones together
tendon joins bone to muscle
superior rectus muscle turns eye superiorly
inferior rectus muscle turns eye inferiorly
medial rectus muscle turns eye medially
lateral rectus muscle turns eye laterally
superior oblique muscle turns eye inferiorly and medially
inferior oblique muscle turns eye superiorly and laterally
origin of muscle beginning of muscle where its tendon is attached to a stationary or nearly stationary bone
insertion of muscle ending of muscle where its tendon is attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts and relaxes
Created by: 100001033451881