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A&P Ch. 28

reproduction system

germ cells of sexual reproduction gametes
testes in males and ovaries in females--that produce gametes and secrete sex hormones gonads
paired oval glands in the scrotum that develop near kidney and descend through inguinal canals near the 7th month of fetal development, each contains 200-300 lobules and 1-3 seminiferous tubules sperm are produced here testes
the supporting structure for the testes that consists of loose skin and underlying subcutaneous layer that hangs from the root of the penis scrotum
a series of small bands of skeletal muscle that descend as an extension of the internal oblique muscle through the spermatic cord to surround the testes cremaster muscle
found in spaces between seminiferous tubules; secrete testosterone leydig (interstitial)cells
"helper"cells that prevent immune response against spermatogenic cell's surface antigens; tight junctions join them together; nourish spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperm sertoli (sustenacular) cells
where sperm cells are produced seminiferous tubules
consists of tightly coiled ductus; reabsorb degenerated sperm; site of sperm maturation; can store sperm for several months; continues into ductus deferens epididymus
conveys sperm during sexual arousal through peristaltic contractions, and can also store sperm ductus (vas) deferens
secrete an alkaline, viscous fluid that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and clotting proteins; fluid helps neutralize the acidic environment of the male urethra and the female reproductive tract. 60% of semen volume seminal vesicles
25% of semen volume; secretes milky fluid containing citric acid, proteolytic enzymes and seminalplasmin( antibiotic) prostrate gland
secrete alkaline fluid that protects passing sperm by neutralizing acids from urine in urethra; mucus lubricates end of penis and lining of urethra bulbourethral glands
the maturation of spermatids into sperm takes 65-75 days spermatogenesis
where stem cells undergo mitosis to replace themselves and some continue development(diploid cells 2n) spermatogonia
each duplicates its DNA and meosis begins: meosis 1: homologous pairs of chromosomes line up,recombine, separate diploid 2n primary spermatocytes
the 2 cells formed in meosis 1; each has 23 chromosomes (haploid) secondary spermatocytes
the 4 haploid cells resulting from meosis 2 spermatids
a mature male germ cell that develops in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. spermatozoa
is synthesized from cholesterol in the testes and is the principal androgen; suppresses secretion of LH by ant. pituitary gonadotrophs and suppresses secretion of GnRH by hypothalamic neurosecretory cells testosterone
contains urethra; consists of 3 cylindrical masses of tissue with erectile tissue penis
where homologous pairs line up, recombine, separate meiosis 1
where sister chromatids separate meiosis 2
a cap-like vesicle filled with enzymes that help a sperm to penetrate a secondary oocyte to bring about fertilization acrosome
a fluid discharged at ejaculation by a male that consists of a mixture of sperm and the secretions of seminiferous tubules, seminal vesicles, prostrate, and bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands semen
paired glands that are homologous to the testes; produce secondary oocytes that develop into mature ova (eggs) after fertilization, and progesterone, estrogens, inhibin, and relaxin ovaries
provide a route for sperm to reach and ovum and transport oocytes and fertilized ova from the ovaries to the uterus uterine (fallopian) tube
serves as part of a pathway for sperm deposited in the vagina to reach the uterine tubes; site of implantation of the fertilized ovum, development of the fetus during pregnancy, and labor uterus
long fibromuscular canal lined with mucous membrane that extends from the exterior of the body to the uterine cervix vagina
the mucous membrane lining the uterus endometrium
the smooth muscle layer of the uterus myometrium
the serosa of the uterus perimetrium
the formation of gametes in the ovary; begins at birth, but stops in prophase of meiosis 1 until sexual maturity oogenesis
what germ cells differentiate into-diploid stem cells that can divide oogonia
enter the prophase of meiosis 1 during fetal development, but don't complete phase until after puberty; during arrested stage of development it is surrounded by a single layer of flat follicular cells primary oocyte
after primary oocytes complete meiosis 1 they produce the first polar body and this which receives most of the cytoplasm. This begins meosis 2, and is released during ovulation secondary oocyte
where a primary oocyte is surrounded by a single layer of flat follicular cells primordial follicle
when the primordial follicles grow they develop into this primary follicle
granulosa cells secrete follicular fluid in antrum; layer of granulosa cells attaches to zona pellucida forming corona radiata secondary follicle
what the secondary follicle becomes; just before ovulation diploid primary oocyte completes meiosis 1 and produces 2 unequal size haploid cells- first polar body is discarded and secondary oocyte graafian follicle
clear glycoprotein layer between secondary oocyte and the surrounding granulosa cells of the corona radiata zona pellucida
the rupture of a mature ovarian (Graafian) follicle with discharge of a secondary oocyte into the pelvic cavity ovulation
uterus replaces lost endometrium and follicles grow; last from menstruation to ovulation; fsh and lh cause development of follicle; follicle produces estrogen follicular phase of ovarian cycle
progesterone from corpus luteum develops->maintains uterine lining; luteum lives for 14 days and then dies; death of luteum relieves inhibition of FSH and allows new cycle to begin and trigger shedding of uterine lining luteal phase of ovarian cycle
contains the remnants of a mature follicle after ovulation; produces estrogens, progesterone, relaxin, and inhibin until it degenerates into fibrous scar tissue corpus luteum
Describe the pathway of sperm from the testes out of the body-including the accessory glands secretions Testes->semniferous tubules->epididymus->vas deferens-> back of bladder->seminal vesicle (secrete an alkaline, viscous fluid that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and clotting proteins)-> bulbourethral glands (alkaline fluid protects sperm from acid)
Describe the pathway of sperm from the testes out of the body-including the accessory glands secretions past the b glands prostate(secretes milky fluid containing citric acid, proteolytic enzymes and seminalplasmin( antibiotic) -> ejaculatory ducts-> urethra
Describe how FSH controls the testes +testerone act on Sertoli cells to stimulate secretion of androgen-binding protein->binds testosterone keeping concentration high->testosterone stimulates spermatogenesis-> sertoli cells release inhibin which inhibits FSH
Describe how LH controls the testes stimulates Leydig(Interstitial) cells to make testosterone
Describe how Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates the female reproductive system. controls ovarian and uterine cycle, stimulates release of follicle-stimulating hormone and lutenizing hormone from the anterior pituitary
Describe how FSH hormone regulates the female reproductive system. intiates follicular growth and stimulates ovarian follicles to secrete estrogens
Describe how LH hormone regulates the female reproductive system. stimulates further development of ovarian follicles; stimulates ovarian follicles to secrete estrogens; stimulates thecal cells of developing follicle to produce androgens to be converted to estrogens; triggers ovulation; promotes formation of the c.l.
Describe how Estrogen hormone regulates the female reproductive system. promotes development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics; increase protein anabolism
Describe how Progesterone hormone regulates the female reproductive system. secreted by the corpus luteum; works with estrogens to prepare and maintain endometrium for implantation and mammary glands for milk production; inhibits secretion of GnRH and LH
Describe how Relaxin hormone regulates the female reproductive system. produced by corpus luteum;relaxes uterus by inhibiting contraction of myometrium; at end of pregnancy, increase flexibility of pubic symphysis and dilates uterine cervix
Describe how Inhibin hormone regulates the female reproductive system. secreted by granulosa cells of growing follicles and corpus luteum; inhibits secretion of FSH and LH which keeps a new cycle from starting
Created by: scissorxhands



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