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Endocrine System C10

Endocrine System Chp 10

______ _______ provides slow, long lasting coordination of body functions Endocrine system
The endocrine system consists of glands and tissues that secrete ________ Hormones
Hormones are transported by ______ to other tissues and organs Blood
Hormones only affect _____ _____, which are cells that have specific receptors for that hormone. The receptors can be either on the cell’s membrane, or inside the cell. target cells
Hormones affect target cells by altering their _______ activities Metabolic
______ ________ enter the target cells by passing through both the plasma membrane and entering the nucleus, then causing the DNA to code for the production of specific proteins such as enzymes Steroid hormones
_____ ______ do not enter the target cells, they instead bind to receptors on the external surface of the cells membrane causing compounds to be released inside the cell that alter the cells functions Non-steroid hormones
___________ are called local, or tissue hormones. Prostaglandins
Prostaglandins are produced by ______ in nearly every organ and only affect cells close to them Cells
Prostaglandins can modify effects of _____________ hormones. Non-steroid
What are the functions of Prostaglandins 1. Promote inflammation, with pain and fever 2. Constrict or dilate blood vessels 3. Promote blood clotting 4. Promote excretion of water or electrolytes by kidneys
Glands can be stimulated by a variety of stimuli such as _______, _________, or _______ ________. Hormones ; Chemicals ; Nerve Impulses
Hormone secretion is regulated by ______ ________, which means that when blood levels of the hormone produced by the gland are low, the gland is stimulated to release more of the hormone. When the levels are high, the gland stops releasing the hormone. negative feedback
The _________ __________ Hangs from a short stalk from the inferior aspect of the brain and is nestled in a hollowed out area in one of the skull bones. Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)
What are the two parts of the Pituitary Gland 1. Anterior Lobe 2. Posterior Lobe
The anterior lobe is regulated by releasing hormones secreted from the __________. Hypothalamus
The anterior lobe _______ and ______ its own hormones. Produces ; Stores
Hormones for the _______ _______ are produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior lobe. posterior lobe
The hypothalamus controls the release of hormones from the posterior lobe using _____ ________. nerve impulses
What are the Anterior lobe hormones? 1. Growth hormone (GH) 2. Thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) 3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 4. Gonadotropins 5. Prolactin
What are the Posterior lobe hormones? 1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 2. Oxytocin
The _______ ______ stimulates the division and growth of body cells Growth Hormone
Growth hormone is most abundant during _______ ______ Growth years
______________ __________ Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Secretion of Thyroid-stimulation hormone is regulated from _________ Hypothalamus
__________ _______ Controls secretion of hormones by the adrenal cortex Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Excess stress can cause excess __________ ________ production Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
______ Initiates and maintains milk production by mammary glands after child birth Prolactin
What are the two types of Gonadotropin hormones? 1. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 2. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
___________ _______ Stimulates actual gamete production, eggs in females or sperm in males Follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH)
__________ ________ Stimulates hormone production (progesterone in females, testosterone in males) Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Gonadotropin Secretion is caused by releasing hormones secreted by the ___________. Hypothalamus
Posterior lobe hormones are produced by _________ in the hypothalamus. Neurons
________ ___________ Promotes water reabsorption by the kidneys to reduce water volume in urine which then increases water volume in the blood Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone is regulated by neurons that monitor ____ ____________ in blood water concentration
Increase in water concentration of blood causes ADH secretion to _______ Decrease
Decrease in water concentration of blood causes ADH secretion to _______ Increase
________ Stimulates and strengthens contraction of smooth muscle of the uterus during labor Oxytocin
Oxytocin Causes milk ___ _____ and ejection due to infant suckling let down
Secretion of Oxytocin is controlled by _________ ______________ Positive Feedback
The Thyroid gland is located below the __________ Larynx
_______ is necessary for production of thyroid hormones Iodine
Thyroid hormone is actually two hormones, ____ and _____ T3 and T4
Secretion is stimulated by _______ produced by the anterior pituitary Thyroid-stimulating hormone
What are the functions of TH 1. Increase metabolic rate 2. Promote protein synthesis 3. Enhance neuron function
_________ is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland that lowers blood calcium by stimulating osteoblasts to take calcium out of the blood and deposit it into the bones Calcitonin
________ ______ are small glands on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland and has 2 glands on each lobe Parathyroid Glands
_________ __________ Increases the concentration of blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts to remove calcium from bones and deposit it into the blood, and inhibiting the activity of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
The 2 adrenal glands are located one atop each _________ Kidney
The adrenal glands consist of two portions. The inner ______ _______ and the outer _______ ______. Adrenal medulla ; Adrenal cortex
The two hormones of the adrenal medulla are 1. Epinephrine 2. Norepinephrine
Secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine is regulated by _________ ___________ of the autonomic nervous system and are secreted during times of stress sympathetic division
The effects of the hormones of the adrenal medulla are… 1. Decrease blood flow to organs and skin 2. Increase in blood flow to skeletal muscles, lungs, and nervous systems 3. Increase blood glucose levels 4. Increase rate of cellular respiration 5. Accommodate “fight or flight” response
The two hormones of the adrenal cortex are…. 1. Aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid) 2. Cortisol (a glucocorticoid)
____________ Helps to maintain electrolyte balance (Na+ and K+), blood volume, and blood pressure by causing kidneys to retain Na+ which then causes water to be retained Aldosterone
Secretion of aldosterone is stimulated by a _______ in Na+, an ______ in K+ or a decrease in blood pressure Decrease ; increase
_______ helps the body respond to stress by making more glucose available to body cells. Cortisol
Cortisol helps reduce inflammation but also reduces the ________ _________ Immune response
Secretion of cortisol is caused by ________ stimulation ACTH
In the pancreas __________ __ _________ secrete hormones Islets of Langerhans
Islets of Langerhans secrete what 2 hormones? 1. Glucagon 2. Insulin
________ Increases blood glucose levels when it drops too low, even when carbohydrates are used up because it causes liver to convert glycogen to glucose and helps convert non-carbohydrates to glucose Glucagon
_________ Decreases blood glucose concentration when it gets too high by aiding glucose uptake by body cells where it can be used for energy, and causing the liver to synthesize extra glucose molecules into glycogen, which is the storage form. Insulin
The secretion of glucagon and insulin is governed by blood glucose levels using a ________ _________ mechanism negative feedback
Low blood glucose _________ secretion of glucagon and ________ secretion of insulin Stimulates ; inhibits
High blood glucose stimulates secretion of ________ and inhibits secretion of _______ Insulin ; glucagon
_______ _________is caused by hyposecretion of insulin Diabetes mellitus (AKA sugar diabetes)
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus include high ______ ______ levels and acidosis, due to use of fats for energy blood glucose
_______ are the sex glands Gonads
In females the gonads are the ______ which produce ova and sex hormones Ovaries
In males the gonads are the _______ which produce sperm and sex hormones Testes
Ovaries secrete 2 female sex hormones _________ and ____________ Estrogen ; Progesterone
Ovaries Activate at _________ in response to FSH and LH Puberty
_____ and _____ interact in a 28-day ovarian cycle and subsequent uterine cycle (menses) FSH ; LH
Testes are paired, ovoid organs located in scrotum that secrete ____________ Testosterone
______ _______ is a small, cone-shaped gland within the brain that secretes melatonin Pineal gland
_________ functions to control the onset of puberty and to regulate daily wake-sleep cycles: makes the body sleepy Melatonin
Created by: hmurray90



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