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(Chadmw) Chapter4&5

(Willis) Chapter 4 & 5

Culture The ideas, customs, and way of life of a specific group of people that is sometimes referred to as civilization.
Establish To found, institute, build, or bring into being on a firm or stable basis.
Exclude To shut out from participation, consideration, or privilege.
Generation The entire body of individuals born and living at about the same time.
Varied Characterized by or exhibiting diversity.
Peninsula A body of land with water on three sides.
Colony A settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties with its homeland.
Polis The early Greek city-state, made up of a city and the surrounding countryside and run like an independent country.
Agora In early Greek city-states, an open area that served as both a market and meeting place for social & political matters.
Crete An island off the southeast coast of mainland Greece that was the center of Minoan civilization, the first civilization in Ancient Greece.
Minoans People who created the first civilization in Greece. They had a very rich & advanced civilization that depended on sea-based on trade.
Mycenae An ancient city on the peninsula of mainland Greece that included the culture f the same name, whose kings became the first kings of Ancient Greece.
Peloponnesus The peninsula in the southern part of mainland Greece that was the center of Mycenaean civilization & of later city-states like Sparta.
Agamemnon The Mycenaean king in Greek mythology who led the Greeks into the Trojan War & who used trickery to win it.
Dark Age A period of time in Greek history where poverty took hold, population growth came to a standstill, & the Greek people forgot how to read & write. After the this period ended, the Greeks learned a new alphabet from the Phoenicians.
Tyrant A person who takes power by force and who rules with absolute power & authority.
Oligarchy A government in which a small group of people holds power.
Democracy A government in which all citizens share in running the government.
Helot A person who was conquered and enslaved by the ancient Spartans.
Sparta A city-state in early Greece that focused mainly on training young boys to be warriors. It was renowned for having the best army. The form of government in Sparta was an oligarchy.
Athens A City-state in early Greece which developed into an emerging democracy that was renowned for its culture & was known for having the best navy. Its boys were given a well-rounded education that included academics, sports, & music.
Solon A Greek man who reformed society in Athens by canceling farmers' debts and freeing those who had become slaves. He is remembered for having laid the foundations for democracy in Athens.
Peisistratus A Greek tyrant who seized power in 560 B.C. He divided large estates among landless farmers and gave jobs and money to the poor.
Cleisthenes A Greek leader who came to power in 508 B.C. and is credited with making the government of Athens a democracy.
Satrapy A province under the jurisdiction of a satrap.
Satrap An official who ruled a state or province in the Persian Empire.
Zoroastrianism Persian religion founded by Zoroaster. It taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong, but that goodness would triumph in the end.
Persia An area which is now southwestern Iran that was also called the Persian Empire. At its height it extended from Egypt & the Aegean sea to India. It was conquered by Alexander the Great between 334 & 331 B.C.
Marathon A plain located a short distance from Athens where the Athenians defeated the Persians to end the first Persian War.
Thermopylae A narrow mountain pass where the Greeks, led by 300 Spartan soldiers, valiantly fought off the Persian Army for two days before finally being betrayed & losing the battle against the Persians.
Salamis The strait where the Greeks attacked and destroyed almost the entire Persian fleet in a ferocious battle that all but guaranteed victory in the Second Persian War.
Plataea A site northwest of Athens where the largest Greek army ever assembled crushed the Persian army and saved their homeland in 479 B.C., officially ending the Second Persian War.
Cyrus the Great The ruler who united the Persians into a powerful empire in the 6th century B.C. He was known for his fair treatment of people within his empire.
Darius The Persian king who came to the throne in 521 B.C. and reorganized the Persian government by dividing the empire into 20 states or provinces known as Satrapies.
Xerxes The son of Darius, this Persian king took the throne in 486 B.C. after the death of his father. He invaded Greece with the largest army ever assembled to seek revenge for his father’s defeat at Marathon, but was eventually defeated.
Themistocles An Athenian general who came up with a plan for the Spartans and the Athenians to fight the Persians & who was responsible for the Greek victory at Salamis.
Direct democracy A system of government in which people gather at mass meetings to decide on government matters by voting.
Representative democracy A type of democracy in which the citizens delegate authority to elected representatives.
Philosopher A thinker who seeks wisdom and ponders questions about life.
Delos A Greek island in the Aegean Sea where the Delian League had its headquarters.
Pericles Great Athenian general & statesman who guided Athens & contributed greatly to Its political & cultural supremacy in Greece & was responsible for the construction of the Parthenon as well as the Peloponnesian War, which was successful until his death.
Aspasia A well-educated woman who, though not a native Athenian, moved freely about Athens and taught public speaking. She helped shape Athenian politics as an advisor to Pericles.
The Age of Pericles A Golden in Classical Greece lasting from the end of the Persian Wars to the death of Pericles, who had fostered arts and literature and gave to Athens a splendor which would never return throughout its history.
Accurate Free from error or defect & consistent with a standard. Precise or exact.
Aid Assistance or help.
Conduct To direct in action or course or to manage.
Decline A failing or gradual loss, as in strength, character, power, or value.
Promote To help bring about or encourage to exist or flourish.
Mount Olympus The highest mountain in Greece. According to Greek mythology, it was the home of the 12 most important Greek gods and goddesses.
Delphi An ancient Greek city that was the site of the oracle at the Temple of Apollo that many Greeks turned to in times of need.
Homer Greek poet and author of the epics the Iliad and the Odyssey, which are about the Trojan war & some of the soldiers’ return home.
Aesop A Greek slave known for his famous fables such as “The Tortoise & the Hare” & “The Boy Who Cried Wolf,” which he composed about 550 B.C.
Sophocles A Greek general & well-known writer of tragedies such as “Oedipus Rex” & “Antigone.” He introduced three actors in his stories & placed painted scenes behind the stage as a backdrop to the action.
Euripides A Greek playwright know for his tragedies in which he questioned traditional thinking, especially about war.
Myth A traditional story that describes gods or heroes or that provides an explanation for natural events which are otherwise difficult to explain.
Oracle A Sacred shrine where a priest or priestess spoke for a god or goddess.
Epic A Long poem that tells about legendary or heroic deeds while emphasizing the values of its culture of origin.
Fable A Short tale that teaches a lesson or moral.
Drama A Story told by actors who pretend to be the characters in the story.
Tragedy A Form of drama in which a person struggles to overcome difficulties, but meets an unhappy ending.
Comedy A Form of Drama in which the story contains humor & has a happy ending.
Pythagoras Greek philosopher and mathematician famous for his Pythagorean theorem in geometry. He believed that all relationships in the world could be expressed in numbers. Socrates
Plato A student of Socrates, he wrote the “Republic” in which he describes his ideal government. He believed in equal education & job opportunities for men & women.
Aristotle A student of Plato, he opened his own school called the Lyceum. He taught his students the "golden mean," which says that a person should do nothing in excess. He is also one of the most renowned thinkers in all of History.
Herodotus He is considered the "father of history," because he was the first real historian. He wrote the “History of the Persian Wars.”
Thucydides He considered the greatest historian of the ancient world because of his use of sources from all sides involved & for his accuracy in reporting facts. He wrote the “History of the Peloponnesian War.”
Philosophy The study of nature & the meaning of life where the big questions are asked. It comes from the Greek word for love of Wisdom.
Philosopher A thinker who seeks wisdom & ponders questions about life.
Sophist A professional teacher in Ancient Greece. They believed that people should use knowledge to improve themselves & developed the art of public speaking & debate.
Socratic Method A way of teaching developed by Socrates that used a question & answer format to force students to use their reason & see things for themselves.
Macedonia A rich & powerful kingdom that lay north of Greece that was ruled by Philip II in 359 B.C. The Greeks considered its people to be barbarians, but they respected its army.
Chaeronea A battle in which the Macedonians defeated the Greek army near Thebes in 338 B.C. After this battle Phillip II controlled all of Greece.
Syria A region in ancient times that was located on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea & was conquered by Alexander the Great.
Alexandria A large city in Egypt built by Alexander the Great that became one of the most important cities in the ancient world. It was a center of business & trade & contained a new “Great Library.”
Philip II The king of Macedonia who turned its army into a nearly unstoppable force. He loved Greek culture & planned to conquer Persia before his death. He was also the father of Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great The son of Philip II & student of Aristotle, he was a brilliant & courageous general. He conquered the Persian Empire & extended Greek & Macedonian rule across three continents, all by the age of 32.
Legacy Anything handed down from the past, such as what an ancestor or predecessor left behind when he or she died.
Hellenistic Era A Period following the conquests of Alexander the Great when Greek language & Greek ideas spread to the non-Greek peoples of Southwest Asia & Northern India.
Rhodes A Greek island in the southeast Aegean Sea. Apollonius, author of the epic poem Argonautica, was from Rhodes.
Syracuse A Greek city-state that was home to the scientist Archimedes.
Theocritus A poet during the Hellenistic Era who wrote short poems about the beauty of nature.
Aristarchus An astronomer who claimed that the sun was the center of the universe at a time when other astronomers thought that the Earth was the center of the universe.
Eratosthenes An astronomer in charge of the library at Alexandria. He concluded that the Earth was round & measured the circumference of the Earth.
Euclid The most famous Greek mathematician and author of the book Elements, which describes plane geometry.
Archimedes A Greek scientist of the Hellenistic Era who worked on solid geometry. He is known for saying “Give me a lever and a place to stand, and I will move the earth.”
Epicureanism Philosophy founded by Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens that taught that happiness through pursuit of pleasure was the goal of life.
Stoicism Philosophy founded by Zeno in Hellenistic Athens that taught that happiness came not from following emotions, but from following reason & doing ones duty.
Astronomer A person who studies the stars, planets, & other heavenly bodies.
Plane Geometry A branch of mathematics that shows how points, lines, angles, & surfaces relate to one another.
Solid Geometry A branch of mathematics that studies 3-dimensional objects such as spheres & cylinders.
Created by: chadmw