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-Nervous System-

A&P Chp 8 -- The Nervous System

What are the functions of the nervous system 1.Detection of internal and external changes. 2.Analysis and organization of information. 3.Initiation of appropriate action.
The two Anatomical divisions of the nervous system are 1. Central nervous system (CNS) 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
__________ is the bodies neural control center Central Nervous System (CNS)
The Peripheral Nervous System consists of Nerves and sensory receptors
__________ division and _________ division are the two functional divisions of the nervous system Sensory and Motor
Motor division has two divisions __________ nervous system and _____________ nervous system Somatic and Autonomic
Somatic nervous system is _____________ control of the skeletal system Voluntary
Autonomic nervous system is ______________ control of the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands Involuntary
The structural and functional units of the nervous system that specialize to transmit neural impulses are Neurons
What are the main structures that make up a neuron 1. Cell body 2. Dendrites 3. Axons 4. Synaptic Knobs **on some** 5. Myelin Sheath 6. Nodes of Ranvier
__________ contains the nucleus and organelles in a neuron Cell Body
_________ act as impulse receivers and carry impulses TOWARD cell body Dendrites
_____________ act as impulse transmitters and carry impulses AWAY from the cell Axon
Some neurons have a myelin sheath and its function is to 1. Insulate axons 2. Increase speed of impulse transmission
Tiny spaces between adjacent myelin-forming cells where the axon is exposed are known as Nodes of Ranvier
Name the three different types of neurons 1. Sensory neurons 2. Interneurons 3. Motor Neurons
Where are sensory neurons located and what are their functions Ganglia in the PNS house sensory neuron cell bodies. Their functions are to 1. Carry impulses from peripheral body parts to the CNS 2. Detect homeostatic changes directly or through sensory receptors
_____________ are located entirely in CNS and are situated between sensory and motor neurons Interneurons
Where are Motor neurons located and what are their functions Cell bodies and dendrites are in CNS. Axon is located in nerves of PNS. Their function is to carry impulses from CNS to effectors to produce an action
__________ support and protect neurons Neuroglia
Name the five types of neuroglia 1. Schwann Cells 2. Oligodendrocytes 3. Astrocytes 4. Microglia 5. Ependymal Cells
_______________ line cavities in brain and spinal cord, produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Ependymal Cells
__________ anchor neurons to blood vessels in CNS and help regulate material exchange by helping to form the blood brain barrier. Astrocytes
_____________ are phagocytes of the CNS, they eat bacteria and debris, and clean up the area Microglia
____________ form myelin sheath for neurons in the CNS Oligodendrocytes
_________ form a myelin sheath that insulates axons of the PNS Schwann Cells
__________ and ________________ are two unique functional characteristics of a neuron Irritability ; Conductivity
___________ is the ability to respond to a stimulus by forming an impulse Irritability
_________ is the ability to transmit an impulse along a neuron to another cell Conductivity
What happens when a neuron is at rest 1.Membrane is polarized. 2.Inside of cell is - charge due to Excess of + charged ions outside cell 3.Sodium (Na+) ions are outside the cell membrane and Potassium (K+) ions are inside
When a neuron is at rest membrane is ______ due to unequal distribution of electrical charges on each side of the membrane polarized
What happens to a neuron during depolarization 1.Na+ permeability increases and diffuses into the neuron causing the inside to be positive and the outside to be negative. 2.Both Na+ and K+ are inside the cell 3.Creates a nerve impulse
What happens to a neuron during repolarization 1. K+ diffuses outward to reestablish the charge distribution of the resting state (positive outside, negative inside) 2. Na+ is then pumped out and K+ is pumped in to reestablish ion distribution of the resting state (Na+ outside, K+ inside)
What is impulse conduction Depolarization at one point triggers depolarization in adjacent portions and Forms a wave of depolarization sweeping along the neuron. ** more rapid in myelinated neurons because impulses only have to form at nodes.
What is Saltatory Conduction` Impulse “jumps” from node to node on myelinated neurons.
A junction of an axon with another neuron or cell is a… Synapse
What is the structure of a synapse 1. Synaptic knob of presynaptic neuron 2. Postsynaptic structure (neuron or effector) 3. Synaptic cleft
What is the last step of synaptic transmission Neurotransmitters are quickly removed which prevents continuous stimulation of postsynaptic neuron or effector and “Resets” the synapse
During the firsts step of Synaptic transmission Arrival of an impulse causes synaptic knob of the _________ neuron to release a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft presynaptic
During the second step of synaptic transmission Neurotransmitters bind to receptors on ___________ neuron’s plasma membrane postsynaptic
During the third step of Synaptic transmission A response is triggered in the _______________ to either stimulate or inhibit the transmission of the impulse further postsynaptic neuron
Signal transmission across a __________ is only on direction Synapse
Only the __________________ can release neurotransmitters Synaptic knob
What is the function of a neurotransmitter Enable communication between neurons and neurons with other cells
___________ promotes impulse formation in postsynaptic cells (ex. acetylcholine, norepinephrine) Excitatory neurotransmitter
_____________ Inhibit the formation of impulses in postsynaptic cells (ex. dopamine, endorphins) Inhibitory neurotransmitter
What protects the CNS Bones - cranial bones & vertebrae Meninges - Pia mater ; Arachnoid mater ; Dura mater
Describe the Pia Mater 1. Thin, innermost layer 2. Adheres to CNS structure surfaces 3. Contain blood vessels to nourish brain and spinal cord
Describe the Arachnoid Mater 1. Middle layer, delicate, web-like, avascular 2. Subarachnoid space : filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Describe the Dura Mater 1. Tough, outermost layer 2. Attached to cranial bones 3. Forms protective tube in vertebral canal
____________ contains adipose tissue and blood vessels Epidural space
What are the four major components of the brain 1. Cerebrum 2. Cerebellum 3. Diencephalon 4. Brain Stem
_________ is the largest portion of the brain Cerebrum
The cerebrum performs higher brain functions which include 1. Sensations 2. Voluntary actions 3. Reasoning 4. Planning 5. Problem Solving
Describe the structure of the cerebrum 1. Left and right cerebral hemispheres which are separate by longitudinal fissure and connected by corpus callosum 2. Surface shows numerous gyri(folds) with sulci(shallow grooves) between them
The outer surface of the cerebrum composed of grey matter (neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers) is called The Cerebral cortex
The ___________________ lies beneath the cortex and is white matter composed of myelinated fibers that transmit impulses between brain structures Cerebral Medulla
Higher level processing and practiced motor skills occurs in the ______ lobe of the cerebral hemisphere Frontal
The Parietal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere is used for Detailed sensory processing
The _________ lobed of the cerebral hemisphere is used for hearing Temporal
The occipital lobe of the cerebral hemisphere is used for Sight
What the 3 types of functions areas in the cerebrum 1. Sensory areas 2. Motor areas 3. Association areas
__________________ are used for incoming information Sensory areas
Motor areas process ___________ information Outgoing
_________________ connects incoming information with outgoing information Association areas
The diencephalon lies between the _______________ and the ____________ Brain stem ; Cerebrum
The Diencephalon consists of the major areas, the ________ and the ___________ Thalamus ; Hypothalamus
What is the function of the Thalamus Relay station for incoming (sensory) and outgoing (motor) impulses. Sorts sensory inputs and sends it to correct processing area. Sorts motor input and sends it to appropriate area
_________ is inferior to the thalamus Major control center for autonomic nervous system and is a major player in maintaining homeostasis Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus maintains homeostasis by regulating 1. Body temperature 2. Mineral and water balance 3. Appetite and digestive process 4. Heart rate and blood pressure 5. Sleep and wakefulness 6. Emotions of fear and rage 7. Secretion of hormones by pituitary gland
The _____________ is associated with the diencephalon and involved in memory and emotions Limbic System
The _________ Stalk-like portion connecting higher brain centers with the spinal cord Brain Stem
The brain stem consists of 1. Midbrain 2. Pons 3. Medulla Oblongata
__________ is the reflex center for visual and auditory stimuli and orients eyes and ears toward source of stimulus Midbrain
What is the function of Pons 1. Coordinates the actions of the respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata 2. contains nerve fibers that connect higher and lower brain centers and the cerebrum with the cerebellum
______________ is the most inferior portion of the brain, connects to the spinal cord Medulla Oblongata
The medulla oblongata contains the ______________ that controls respiratory rate and depth Respiratory Control Center
The medulla oblongata contains the cardiac control center that controls Heart rate
The medulla oblongata contains the ___________________ that regulates blood pressure and blood flow Vasomotor Center
Describe reticular formation 1. Arouses the cerebrum to wakefulness 2. Decrease in activity causes sleep 3. Damage can cause coma or unconsciousness
______________ Controls and coordinates the interaction of skeletal muscles and controls posture, posture, balance, and muscle coordination. Cerebellum
Brain contains four interconnecting __________ which are cavities lined by ependymal cells ventricles
Ventricles are filled with Filled with ____________ which is extracted from the __________ (a mass of blood vessels) cerebrospinal fluid; choroid plexus
The two __________ are within cerebral hemispheres lateral ventricles
The third ventricle is located midline of the ______________ diencephalon
The Fourth ventricle is Midline of brain stem, anterior to cerebellum, Continuous with _________ of spinal cord central canal
What is the first step in the flow of CSF Lateral ventricles to third ventricle to fourth ventricle to central canal or subarachnoid space
What is the second step in the flow of From subarachnoid space: upwards around the brain or down posterior side of spinal cord, then up anterior side
What is the last step in the flow of CSF 3. Reabsorbed within dura mater. Secretion and absorption of CSF is at equal rates to keep a constant hydrostatic pressure
The spinal cord Descends from medulla oblongata through foramen magnum, through the vertebral canal to level of 2nd lumbar vertebra (L2)
The spinal cord terminates in bundle of spinal nerves called Cauda equina (horse tail)
The spinal cord has two grooves called 1. Anterior median fissure 2. Posterior median sulcus
___________ columns surround the gray matter White matter
What are the 3 white matter columns 1. Anterior Column 2. Posterior Column 3. Lateral Column
____________ is internal and butterfly shaped, made up mostly of interneurons Gray Matter
Gray matter forms…. 1. Central Canal 2. Anterior horns 3. Posterior horns
______________ transmits impulses to and from the brain and is the reflex center for spinal reflexes Spinal Cord
____________________ transmits impulses to the brain Ascending (sensory) tracts
Descending (motor) tracts transmit impulses .... From the brain
The peripheral nervous system consists of 12 pairs of _______ that emerge from the brain Cranial nerves
The peripheral nervous system consists of 31 pairs of __________ that emerge from the spinal cord Spinal nerves
The function of the olfactory nerve is Sense of smell
The function of the ________ nerve is vision Optic
The Oculomotor nerve, trochlea nerve, and abducens nerve are all used for Moving the eyes
The _____________ nerve used for balance and hearing Vestibulocochlear
The Vagus nerve is used for ANS(peresypathetic), and organs
The __________ and _____________ nerves are used for the tongue and throat Hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal
Facial and trigeminal nerves are used for Facial expressions and teeth
________ nerves are used in the muscles of the mouth, throat, neck, and upper back Accessory
The 3 types of nerves are 1. Motor nerves (outgoing) 2. Sensory nerves (incoming) 3. Mixed nerves (both
Nerves can contain ________ from both somatic and autonomic nervous system Fibers
______________ is composed of a group of nerves in a specific area Spinal Plexuses
What are some examples of spinal plexus 1. Cervical plexus : found in the neck 2. Brachial plexus : found in the upper torso 3. Lumbar plexus: found in the lower back
Spinal nerves form from two roots in the spinal cord ___________ root (sensory axons) and __________ root (Motor axons) Posterior ; Anterior
___________ are rapid, involuntary, and predictable responses to internal and external stimuli Reflexes
Reflexes maintain ___________ and increase chances for survival Homeostasis
Reflex pathways are called Reflex arcs
What are two types of reflexes 1. Autonomic reflexes (happen without our knowing) 2. Somatic reflexes (consciously aware of them)
What are the steps of a somatic spinal reflex 1.Pain receptors form an impulse which is carried by sensory neuron to Interneuron in spinal cord, which passes impulse to Motor neuron in spinal cord, which uses it axon to carry the impulse to Effectors on muscles in the body that respond by contracting
______________ functions involuntarily without conscious control. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
The purpose of the ANS is to maintain ____________ in response to changes in internal conditions Homeostasis
ANS only uses _________ neurons Motor
The two motor neurons used by ANS are Preganglionic neurons and Postganglionic neurons
_________ neuron runs from CNS to autonomic ganglion Preganglionic
___________runs from ganglion to visceral effector Postganglionic
The ANS is subdivided into ____________ division and _______________ division Sympathetic ; Parasympathetic
What occurs during Sympathetic Division Preganglionic fibers arise from thoracic and lumbar regions and synapse with postganglionic neuron cell bodies in the sympathetic chain ganglia found close to the spinal column
Preganglionic fibers arise from brainstem and sacral region of spinal cord and synapse with postganglionic neuron cell bodies in ganglia close to the organs they serve during… Parasympathetic division
All preganglionic neurons use ________________ Acetylcholine
_______________ postganglionic neurons use acetylcholine Parasympathetic
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons use __________________ norepinephrine
Sympathetic division prepares the body for _______________ Fight or Flight
Parasympathetic division dominates during __________ Rest and digest
Created by: hmurray90



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