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Anatomy Vocab Ch 12

Anatomy Vocab Ch 12 Marieb

lymphatic system two semi-independent parts: lymphatic vessels and lymphoid tissues and organs; low pressure system; vessels contract rhythmically, pumping the lymph along
lymphatic vessels (lymphatics) an elaborate drainage system that transports fluids back to the blood vascular systems; flows only toward the heart; thin walled
lymphatic tissues and organs house phagocytic cells and lymphocytes, playing essential role in body defense and resistance to disease
edema fluid that is not transfered back to blood vascular system, impairs the ability of tissue cells to exchanged interstitial fluid with blood
lymph excess tissue fluid
lymph capillaries weave between tissue cells and blood capillaries in connective tissues, absorbing leaked fluid, have minivalves; larger particles are allowed to enter
lymph nodes the detour that lymph takes where it is cleansed of debris, examined by cells of the immune system; help protect the body by removing foreign material like bacteria and tumor cells, produce lymphocytes; kidney shaped, less than 1 inch
lymphatic collecting vessels the system of capillaries, successively larger until reaching the venous sytem
right lymphatic duct drains lymph from the right arm and right side of the head and thorax
thoracic duct receives lymph from the rest of the body
subclavian veins lymph drains into this vein, one on each side of the body
macrophages engulf and destroy bacteria, viruses and other foreign substances; found in the lymph nodes; "big eaters"
lymphocytes white blood cells, found in the lymph nodes, respond to foreign substances in lymphatic stream
lymphoid organs tonsils, thymus, spleen, peyer's patches; reticular connective tissue; only the lymph node filters lymph
capsule each node is surrounded by a fibrous capsule
trabeculae strands from the fibrous capsule of the lymph node
cortex outer part of the lymph node, contains collections of lymphocyes called follicles
follicles the collection of lymphocytes found in the lymph node cortex
germinal center the center of the lymph node; shows an increase in activity when antibody production is high
plasma cells daughter cells of the lymphocytes, releasing antibodies
medulla in the lymph node where phagocytic macrophages are located
afferent lymphatic vessels lymph enters the convex side of a lymph node through these
sinuses lymph flows thru these in the lymph node
hilum lymph exits this indented region of the lymph node
efferent lymphatic vessels lymph drains from the lymph node thru these; connect to the lymph node at the hilum
spleen soft blood-rich organ; filters and cleanses blood of bacteria, viruses and other debris; lymphocyte proliferation; destroys worn-out red blood cells, returning some of breakdown products to liver; restores platelets, blood reservoir; AKA RBC graveyard
thymus gland functions at peak levels only during youth, low in throat overlying the heart; produces thymosin, functions in programing of lymphocytes; protective role
tonsils lymphoid tissue ringing the pharynx; traps and removes any bacteria or foreign pathogens; can become congested with bacteria, becoming tontillitis
peyer's patches found in the wall of the sm intestine; capture and destroy bacteria; sentinel of the digestive tracts
mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) peyer's patches and tonsils, acting as sentinel to protect upper respiratory and digestive tracts
immune system innate and adaptive defense systems
innate defense system (non-specific) responds immediately to protect the body from all foreign substances; mechanical barriers that cover body surfaces, the initial battlefront to protect the body
adaptive defense system (specific) mounts the attack against particular foreign substances; two armed system, humoral arm and cellular arm
immunity specific resistance to disease
pathogens harmful or disease causing microorganisms
first line of defense skin and mucous membranes
lysozyme enzyme that destroys bacteria
acidic PH inhibits bacterial growth, containing chemicals that are toxic to bacteria
mucosa hydorchloric acid and protein-digesting enzymes kill pathogens; sticky mucus traps microorganisms that enter digestive and respiratory passages
second line of defense cells and chemicals, relying on phagocytes and natural killer cells; fever also
phagocytes macrophage or neutrophil engulf a foreign particle; flowing cytoplasmic extensions bind to the particle and pull it inside, closing it in vacuole, fused with lysosome and contents are broken down or digested
natural killer cells police the body in blood and lymph, lymphocytes that can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells; act spontaneously against any target by recognizing certain sugars on the intruder's surface; not phagocytic, release perforins
perforin a lytic chemical that attacks a cell membrane causing the nucleus to disintegrate
inflammatory response redness, heat, swelling, pain
histamine and kinins inflammatory chemicals that cause blood vessels to dilate and capillaries become leaky, activate pain receptors and attract phagocytes/white blood cells to the area
chemotaxis oriented movement toward or away from a chemical stimulus, chemicals in this case being histamine and kinins
diapedesis the passage of blood cells thru intact vessel walls into the tissues
pus mixture of dead or dying neutrophils, broken-down tissue cells, living and dead pathogens
antimicrobial proteins attack microorganisms directly or hinder their ability to reproduce; complement proteins and interferon
complement proteins 20 proteins circulating in the blood, inactive until they fix to foreign cells, become activiated and fight foreign cells
interferon proteins that diffuse to nearby cells and bind to their membrane receptors, stimulating the synthesis of proteins that interere with virus ability to multiply
membrane attack complexes (MAC) produce lesions, complete with holes, in the foreign cell surface, allowing water into the cell, causing it to burst
complement fixation complement proteins bind to certain sugars or proteins (as in antibodies) on foreign cell surface; vasodilators, chemotaxis chemicals, opsonization
pyrogens chemicals secreted by white blood cells and macrophages exposed to foreign cells or substances in the body
opsonization cell membrane becomes sticky so they are easier to phagocytize
immune response nonspecific defenses providing protection that is carefully targeted against specific antigens
third line of defense immune response; indentfying and destroying or inactivating foreign molecules
immunology study of immunity
antigen specific recognizes and acts against particular pathogens or foreign substances
systemic immunity is not restricted to initial infection site
memory or memory cells immune response is remembered and mounts even stronger attacks on previously encountered pathogens
Humoral immunity (antibody-mediated immunity) provided by antibodies present in the bodys fluids
cellular immunity (cell-mediated immunity) protective factor is living cells, lymphocytes defend the body directly by lysing the cells or indirectly by releasing chemicals that increase inflammatory response
antigen any substance capable of mobilising our immune system and provoking an immune respone
nonself foreign
self-antigens our personal variety of protein molecules; strongly antigenic to other people
hapten (incomplete antigen) the molecule that causes allergies; an attack on our body that is harmful rather than productive
B lymphocytes (B cells) produce antibodies overseeing humoral immunity; form in the bone marrow
T lymphocytes (T cells) non-antibody producing lymphocytes that constitute the cell-mediated arm of adaptive defense system; arise from lymphocytes and migrate to the thymus
gene determined determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resist
cytokines proteins important in the immune response, secreted by macrophages
primary humoral response clone formation of the antigen
clone identical cells descended from the same ancestor cell
clonal selection lymphocyte begins to grow and multiplies rapidly to form an army of cells all like itself, bearing same antigen-specific receptors
secondary humoral response more effective and quick, due to memory of primary immune response
active immunity B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies against them
vaccines artificially aquired immunity
attenuated pathogens in vaccines that are living but extremely weakend
passive immunity B cells are not challenged by the immune response, memory does not occur and temporary protection ends when response degrades
monoclonal antibodies used for diagnosing pregnancy, hepatitis, rabies; antibodies prepared commercialy for research and clinical testing
antibodies immunoglobulins (IG's); the gamma globulin part of blood proteins
antibody structure 4 amino acids chains linked by disulfide bonds, 2 heavy chains, 2 light chains, half as long as heavy chains
variable region (V) the narrower end of the chain forming the antibody
constant region (C) the larger end of the chain forming the antibody
antigen binding site the variable regions of the heavy and light chains in the antibody combine to form this site, shaped to fit its specific antigen
antibody classes IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE
antibody function complement fixation, neutralization, agglutination, precipitation
neutralization when antibodies bind to specific sites on bacterial exotoxins, blocking harmful effects of the exotoxin or virus
agglutination clumping of the foreign cells (as in blood transfusions of incorrect blood type)
precipitation immobilized antigen molecules
antigen presentation the process of the "T cell" recognizing self and activating correct response
cytotoxic (killer) T cells specialize in killing virus infected, cancer or foreign graft cells; release perforins and granzymes
helper T cells act as directors or managers of the immune system
regulatory T cells suppressor T cells; release chemicals that suppress activity of both T and B cells, vital for winding down and stopping immune response
autografts tissue grafts transplanted from one site to another in the same person
isografts tissue grafts donated by genetically identical person
allografts tissue grafts taken from a person other than identical twin
xenografts tissue grafts harvested from a different animal species
immunosuppressive therapy medications to prevent organ or tissue rejection
autoimmune diseases MS, myasthenia gravis, Graves' disease, Type 1 diabetes, SLE, glomerulonephritis, RA
allergies (hypersensitivities) abnormaly vigorous immune responses in which immune system causes tissue damage as it fights off threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body
immediate hypersensitivity (acute) flood of histamine bind to mast cells, blood vessels become dilated and leaky, largely to blame for symptoms of allergy
anaphylactic shock occurs when the allergen directly enters the blood and circulates rapidly thru the body
delayed hypersensitivities cytokines released by activated T cells, antihistamines are not helpful; such as contact dermatitis
allergic contact dermatitis the reaction to allergens that are touched; the reaction of the TB antigen
immunodeficiencies congenital and acquired conditions in which the production or function of immune cells or complement is abnormal
severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) deficit of both B and T cells, no protection against pathogens of any type (bubble boy)
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) most devastating of the acquired immunodeficiences, cripples the immune system by interefering with the activity of helper T cells
complete antigens provoke an immune response and bind with products of that response (antibodies or sensitized lymphocytes)
granzymes protein digesting enzymes
IgD important in activation of B cell; always attached to B cell
IgM attached to B cell; free in plasma; serves as antigen receptor, released during primary respnse; agglutinating agent, fixes complement
IgG most abundant antibody in plasma; main antibody in both primary and secondary rsponse, crosses placenta
IgA monomer in plasma, dimer in secretions such as saliva, tears, intestinal juice, milk; bathes and protects mucosal surfaces from pathogens
IgE secreted by plasma cells in skin, mucosa of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, tonsils; binds to mast cells and basophils, tirggers release of histamine
Created by: erosok



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