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AP Human Geo Unit 4

Political Organization of Space

Annexation Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
Anartica is governed by a system known as the Antarctic Treaty System is administered through annual meetings
Apartheid Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Balkanization A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it is inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Border landscape the complex representation of the environment around state boundaries
Boundary disputes when two or more states disagree about the demarcation of a political boundary
Boundary origin Also called Genetic Political Boundaries because it has to do with the evolution of boundaries.
Boundary process
Boundary Type
Buffer State an independent but small and weak country that lying between two powerful countries.
Capital associated with its government, it physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government and fixed by law.
Centrifugal Forces that tend to divide a country - such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences.
Centripetal Forces that tend to unify a country-such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives,and a common faith
City-state A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Colonialism An attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political economic and cultural principles in another territory.
Confederation a uniting or being united in a league or alliance; a league or alliance; specif., independent nations or states joined in a league or confederacy
conference of Berlin (1884) of 1884-85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power
Core -periphery spatial structure of an economic system in which underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating developed core region.
Decolonization the action of changing from colonial to independent status
Devolution The transfer of certain powers from the state central government to separate political subdivisions within the statee's territory.
Domino Theory the political theory that if one nation comes under communist control then neighboring nations will also come under communist control
Exclusive Economic Zone as established in the United Nations Convention on the law of the Sea, a zone of exploitatin extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it.
Electoral regions the different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions.
Enclave a small bit of foreign territory within a state but not under it's jurisdiction.
exclave a portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country.
European Union an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Federal A political territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interrests defense, foreign affairs and yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities, laws
Forward capital is the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status; although there are exceptions,
Frontier a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises poliitical control.
Geopolitics the influence of the habitat on political entities
Gerrymander The drawing of electoral district boundaries in an awkward pattern to enhance the voting impact of one constituency at the expense of another.
Global commons is that which no one person or state may own or control and which is central to life
Heartland The interior of a sizable landmass, removed from maritime connections in particular the interior of the Eurasian continent.
rimland the maritime fringe of a country or continent in particular the western southern and eastern edges of the Eurasian continent
Immigrant states
International organization an international alliance involving many different countries
Iron Curtain ideological and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War
Irredentism the policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linquistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state.
Landlocked a state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Law of the Sea A comprehensive 1982 convention which attempts to create a regime for the oceans
Mackinder, Halford J. English geographer and is considered one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy.
Manifest destiny was the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean.
Median-line principle is an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places
Microstate/Ministate a state that encompasses a very small land area
Nation a culturally distinctive group of people occupying a specific territory and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity, belief and customs
National iconography Branch of knowledge dealing with representations of people or objects in art and design, hence the symbolism in a design
Nation-state member of modern state system possessing fromal sovereignty and with people possessing bonds of shared cultural attributes
Nunavut newest federal territory of Canada; it was separated officially from the Northwest Territories
Raison d'etre The claimed reason for the existence of something or someone; the sole or ultimate purpose of something or someone
Reapportionment Process by which representative districts are switched according to populatin shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
Regionalism political geography group frequently ethnic group identification with a particular region of a state rather thatn with the state as a whole.
Reunification the act of coming together again
Satellite state a small weak country dominated by one powerful neighbor to the extent that some or much of its independence is lost
state a centralized authority that enforces a single political economic and legal system within its territorial boundaries
Stateless ethnic groups ethnic groups that share certain cultural, political, and/or historic qualities, such as religion, location, or art, but do not share enough qualities to be recognized as a nationality/nation
Stateless nation group that does not have a state
Suffrage the civil right to vote
Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in multi-national political communities, wherein power is transferred or delegated to an authority by governments of member states
Territorial disputes is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states
Territorial morphology an impact on the ability of ruling governments to impose law and policy on state territory
Territoriality A behavior pattern in animals consisting of the occupation and defense of a territory
Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the state's supreme civil ruler
Treaty ports given to the port cities that were opened to foreign trade by the Unequal Treaties.
UNCLOS also called the Law of the Sea Convention
Unitary is a sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that the central government chooses to delegate
USSR collapse
Women's enfranchisement freedom from political subjugation or servitude
Created by: kimdudek
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