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Analysis of urine

what do the kidneys do? seperate urine(waste) from the blood
what is the renal pelvis and what does it do? it is the central area of the kidney that collects urine.
what are ureters? the tubes that conduct urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
what is the urinary bladder? muscular organ that temporarily holds urine then releases it to the urethra
what is the urethra? tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
what can the kidneys do that other organs can't? fine tune the elimination of h2O and electrolytes to maintain the normal volume and composition of body fluids
what is the nephron? the urine making unit of the kidney
what is the most important thing when collecting urine specimens? using the correct cup (sterile cup)
what is a random sample and a first morning specimen? fresly voided, very concentrated urine (it determines: protein, nitrates, bacteria & hCG
when is a 2-hr postprandial urine specimen performed? done 2hrs after meals to test for diabetes
what does a 24hr specimen test used for? hormone levels & creatinine for evaluation of the kidneys
what is the second voided specimen testing for? glucose
what is clean-catch midstream specimen used for? testing microorganisms & bacteria
what does the microscopic examination of urine sediment do? categorizes and counts cells, casts, srystals and miscellaneous constituents of the sediment
how do you obtain the microscopic examination of urine sediment? measured portion of urine is centrifuged
what is a clinitest? the glucose test on the reagent strip will detect only glucose
what is a acetest? an alternative to strip testing when the urine must be tested for the presence of ketones
what is the pregnancy hormone? hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin
what are the normal urine levels for ovulation testing urine levels of LH of 20mIU/ml or greater
what hormone does menopause testing detect? detects FSH in the urine
what is toxicology? the study of poisonous (drugs or alcohol) substances and their effects on the body
what are the steps for patient education of urine testing? explain collection techniques and provide clearly written instructions
what does eliminating urine from the body do? helps the body to maintain water and electrolyte balance
what are the organs of excretion? kidney, skin lung & intestines
urinary system includes which organs? kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra
what functions do the kidneys perform? excrete nitrogen waste, regulate blood volume, electrolyte concentration, pH & blood pressure - stimulate rbc production
what is the nephron unit composed of? renal tubular structure & vascular blood vessel structures
what are the physical properties of urine? amount, color, clarity, odor, pH, & specific gravity
what is the composition of urine? (chemical properties =abnormal componets protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, blood, nitrite, urobilinogen & leukocytes
what is the time limit to test urine specimens? within 2hrs of collection - they should be kept refrigerated
what is the time limit for culture & sensitivity testing? within 72hrs
what is the routine urinalysis? (UA) the test for the physical properties & appearance (color)
appearance & turbidity pale yellow-yellow-straw-amber
normal adult range for volume of urine adults 750-2000mL in 24hrs
what does foam detect? detects abnormality - greenish yellowish indicates bilirubinurea
what does odor mean? gives clue to metabolic disorder caused by disease, bacteria or diet
what is specific gravity? the weight of urine compared to distilled water normal range is 1005-1030mL -depending on water intake
what is polyuria? excessive urine
minimum volume for catherization need to do a minimum of 1500mL
distilled water chemical properties have been removed from the water
colony forming units (cfu) bacteria in urine
culture & sensitivity (c&s) test to detect bacteria & fungus
what is the uterus? the womb that holds the fetus
what is a urinalysis? an exam that determines urine content
what is dialysis? complete seperation of waste from blood when the kidneys fail
Created by: 695691734
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