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SERNS - Anatomy - Test #2 Chapter 2,16,17,19

PROTON Positive
Chemical Bonds Force or attraction between positive and negative electrical charges that keeps 2 or more atoms together.
Ionic Bonds Involve the loss of 1 or more electrons by 1 atom and the gain of the elecxtron by another atom.
Covalent Bonds Involves the sharing of electrons.
Atom the smallest part of an element that still retains the characteristics of the element.
Element A substance made up of only 1 type of atom.
7 Elements that make up the human body Calcium, Sulfur, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Phosphorus
Electron This determines if it will be attracted to another for the process of bonding.
Oxygen Needed product for cell respiration
Carbon Dioxide Waste product for cell respiration
When we EXERCISE, we really feel the products of cell respiraton, because... It produces heat.
Ionic bonds The ones with a + want to pair up with a -.
Cations Carry a positive charge.
Anions Carry a negative charge.
Covalent bonds Involve the SHARING of electrons.
Example of a covalent bond H2O (these bonds are identified by the #)
Example of a ionic bond Na+ + Cl- = Table Salt (these bonds are identified by a + or -)
Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide, Water, ATP and heat Formula for cell respiration
Synthesis Reaction Requires ATP
Decomposition Reaction Produces ATP
Chemical Reactions Refers to the making or breaking of bonds.
Synthesis Reaction Bonds are formed to join 2 or more molecules.
Decomposition Reaction Bonds are broken; Molecule is broken down.
Cell Respiration Energy production within the cells.
Buffer System A chemical or pair of chemicals that minimize the changes in pH.
Water Makes up 60-75% of the body.
Water Compartments Intracellular (65%) Cytoplasm Extracellular (35%) Plasma, tissue fluid, lymph, specialized fluids.
Oligosaccharides "Self" antigens in our cell membrane.
Glycogen Storage form for excess glucose in the liver.
Amylase Enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates.
Disaccharides Added to other foods as a sweetener.
Glucose Most important energy source for cells.
Provides fiber to promote peristalsis Cellulose
Carbohydrate Source of energy for the body.
Blood/Body pH 7.35-7.45
Acidosis Lower pH (increase H ions) Confused, disoriented, coma -> die
Alkalosis Higher pH (decrease H ions) Irritablility, seizures, arrest -> die
Buffer system - Bicarbonate 1st responder -> tissue, blood
Buffer system - Phosphate kidneys
Buffer system - Protein inside the cell
Buffer system - Respiratory Rate of breathing
Calcium Ca
Hydrogen H
Carbon C
Fluorine F
Sodium Na
Magnesium Mg
Phosphorus P
Sulfur S
Chlorine Cl
Potassium K
Manganese Mn
Iron Fe
Cobalt Co
Copper Cu
Zinc Zn
Iodine I
Calcium Provides strength in bones and teeth; Necessary for blood clotting; Necessary for muscle contraction.
Phosphorus Provides strength in bones and teeth; Part of DNA, RNA and ATP; Part of cell membranes
Iron Part of hemoglobin in red blood cells, transports oxygen; Part of myoglobin in muscles, stores oxygen; Necessary for cell respiration.
Copper Necessary for cell respiration; Necessary for hemoglobin synthesis.
Sodium Necessary for muscle contraction; necessary for nerve impulse transmission.
Potassium Necessary for muscle contraction; necessary for nerve impulse transmission; Clotting.
Sulfur Part of some proteins such as insulin and keratin
Cobalt Part of Vitamin B12
Iodine Part of thyroid hormones - thyroxine
Fat Soluble Vitamins A,D,E,K
Vitamin A Synthesis rhodopsin, calcification of growing bones, maintenance of epithelial tissues
Vitamin D Absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine. Contributes to immune responses, action of insulin and preservation of muscle mass and strength.
Vitamin E An antioxidant-prevents destruction of cell membranes. Contributes to wound healing and detoxifying ability of the liver.
Vitamin K Synthesis of prothrombin and other clotting factors
Folic Acid Synthesis of DNA, especially in blood cell production. Contributes to development of fetal CNS.
The alimentary tube Extends from the mouth to the anus.
The alimentary tube Consists of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Accessory organs teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Chemical digestion Enzymes break down food / break down of complex organics into simpler organics.
Mechanical digestion CHEWING - breaks food down into smaller pieces.
Carbohydrates (metabolizes) are digested to... Glucose
Lipids/Fats (metabolizes) are digested to... fatty acids and glycogen
Proteins (metabolizes) are digested to... amino acids
Starches Found in plant foods
Saturated fats animal foods and solid at room temperature
Unsaturated fats transfats and liquid at room temperature
Structural proteins Form pores and receptor sites in cell membranes; Keratin/Collagen
Hormones Insulin-enables cells to take in glucose; lowers blood glucose level; Growth hormone-increases protein synthesis and cell division
Hemoglobin Enables red blood cells to carry oxygen
Myoglobin Stores oxygen in muscle cells
Antibodies Produced by lymphocytes (white blood cells); label pathogens for destruction
Myosin and actin Muscle structure and contraction
Enzymes Catalyst reactions
Steroids/Cholesterol Part of cell membrane; Converted to Vitamin D: Converted by the liver to bile salts -> emulsify fats during digestion; Precursor for steriod hormones (estrogen/testosterone)
Phospholipids Part of cell membrane (lecithin); forms the myelin sheath to provide electrical insulation for neurons.
LDL Bad cholesterol (clogs your arteries)
HDL Good cholesterol (higher in protein and lower in cholesterol--more easily removed from the blood by the liver and excreted in bile.
WATER Is a solvent; Is a lubricant; Changes temperature slowly.
DNA Found in chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell, it is the genetic code for hereditary characteristics
RNA copies the genetic code of DNA to direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm of cells.
ATP energy transferring molecule, formed when cell respiration releases energy from food molecules, used for energy requiring cellular processes
Salivary glands Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual
Lower Esophageal Sphinter Relaxes to allow food to enter the stomach, then contracts to prevent the backup of stomach contents.
Peristalsis Waves of muscular contractions (one-way) that propel the contents through a hollow organ.
Mucosa Lining of the alimentary tube; produces mucus.
Submucosa Vascular-blood supply; Innervated-has communication with brain for digestion.
External Muscle Layer Layer that is responsible for peristalsis.
Serosa Outermost layer; Above the diaphragm -> mesentary membrane; Peritoneum -> Abdominal cavity.
Stomach Mechanical digestion is complete; Begins the digestion of protein.
Mucous cells Secrete mucus which coats the stomach lining.
Chief cells Secrete pepsin.
Parietal cells Produce Hydrochloric acid.
G cells Produces gastric juice.
Tripsin Protein enzyme
Pepsin Protein enzyme
Lipase Lipid enzyme
Bile Lipid enzyme
Only digestive function of the Liver to produce bile.
Metabolizes carbs, proteins, fats Liver
Stores fat-soluble Vitamins A,D,E,K Liver
Most important function of the liver Detoxification
Phagocytosis by Kupffer cells In the liver -> Destroy the bacteria, removing them from the blood before the blood returns to the heart.
2 major functions of the pancreas To make insulin and to make enzymes and bicarbonate juice and pancreatic juice.
Gallbladder Stores bile until needed; cystic duct joins hepatic duct to form common bile duct.
Bile Mostly water; breaks down fats; excretory function -> carries bilirubin and excess cholesterol for elimination in feces.
Secretin Hormone produced by the duodenum; stimulates the production of bile.
Functions of the Large Intestine Absorption of water, minerals, vitamins; elimination of undigestible material.
ectomy excision/removal
itis inflammation
logy study of
endo within
hemi half
quadri four
dys pain
oma tumor
megaly enlargement
cyan/o blue
erythr/o red
R/O rule out
NAD no acute distress
WNL within normal limits
febrile fever, elevated temperature
morbidity a diseased state
mortality being subject to death
kg kilogram
h.s. hours sleep
PMH past medical history
HPI history of present illness
alimentary tube hollow tube extending from mouth to anus
lower esophageal sphincter/cardiac sphincter opening from esophagus to stomach
rugae folds of the mucosa of organs such as the stomach and urinary bladder which permits the expansion of the organ
cecum first part of the large intestine, the dead-end portion adjacent to the ileum
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
defacation reflex spinal cord reflex that eliminate stool from the colon
albumin a liver protein which is found in the plasma; contributes to osmotic pressure
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal space
GERD heartburn, reflux of contents from the stomach back into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
Atom the smallest part of an element.
Which STOMACH cell makes mechanical digestion possible? Parietal cells (make hydrochloric acid)
Fats are only broken down here... the duodenum
Normal body temperature range 96.5F - 99.5F
THYROXINE (Factor that affects heat production) The most important regulator of day-to-day metabolism; increases use of food for ATP production, thereby increasing heat production
EPINEPHRINE AND SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION (Factor that affects heat production) important in stress situations; increases the metabolic activity of many organs; increases ATP and heat production
SKELETAL MUSCLES (Factor that affects heat production) Normal muscle tone requires ATP; the heat produced is about 25% of the total body heat at rest
LIVER (Factor that affects heat production) Always metabolically active; produces as much as 20% of total body heat at rest
FOOD INTAKE (Factor that affects heat production) Increases activity of the GI tract; increates ATP and heat production
HIGHER BODY TEMPERATURE (Factor that affects heat production) Increases metabolic rate, which increases heat production, may become detrimental during high fevers
Radiation (Heat Loss) Heat from the body is transferred to cooler objects not touching the skin
Conduction (Heat Loss) Loss of heat to cooler air or objects that touch the skin, such as clothing
Convection (Heat Loss) Air currents move warm air away from the skin
Sweating (Heat Loss) excess body heat evaporates sweat on the skin surface
Respiratory tract (Heat Loss) Evaporation - body heat evaporates water from the respiratory mucosa, and water vapor is exhaled
Urinary tract (Heat Loss) Urination (urine is at body temperature when eliminated)
Digestive tract (Heat Loss) Defecation (feces are at body temperature when eliminated)
Hypothalmus responsible for the regulation of body temperature "the thermostat" of the body
Metabolism all of the reactions that take place in the body
Anabolism synthesis reactions, the bonding together of smaller molecules to form larger ones
Catabolism decomposition, the breaking of larger molecules to form smaller molecules
The potential energy in food is measured in units called... Calories
dehydration raises osmolarity
osmolarity the concentration of dissolved materials in the urine
Electolyte - Sodium 136-142 - creates much of the osmotic pressure of ECF; most abundant cation in ECF; essential for electrical activity of neurons and muscle cells
Electrolyte - Potassium 3.5-5.0 - creates much of the osmotic pressure of ICF; most abundant cation in ICF; essential for electrical activity of neurons and muscle cells
Created by: ernspst