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SERNS - Anatomy - Test #2 Chapter 2,16,17,19

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

PROTON   Positive  
NEUTRON   Neutral  
ELECTRON   Negative  
Chemical Bonds   Force or attraction between positive and negative electrical charges that keeps 2 or more atoms together.  
Ionic Bonds   Involve the loss of 1 or more electrons by 1 atom and the gain of the elecxtron by another atom.  
Covalent Bonds   Involves the sharing of electrons.  
Atom   the smallest part of an element that still retains the characteristics of the element.  
Element   A substance made up of only 1 type of atom.  
7 Elements that make up the human body   Calcium, Sulfur, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Phosphorus  
Electron   This determines if it will be attracted to another for the process of bonding.  
Oxygen   Needed product for cell respiration  
Carbon Dioxide   Waste product for cell respiration  
When we EXERCISE, we really feel the products of cell respiraton, because...   It produces heat.  
Ionic bonds   The ones with a + want to pair up with a -.  
Cations   Carry a positive charge.  
Anions   Carry a negative charge.  
Covalent bonds   Involve the SHARING of electrons.  
Example of a covalent bond   H2O (these bonds are identified by the #)  
Example of a ionic bond   Na+ + Cl- = Table Salt (these bonds are identified by a + or -)  
Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide, Water, ATP and heat   Formula for cell respiration  
Synthesis Reaction   Requires ATP  
Decomposition Reaction   Produces ATP  
Chemical Reactions   Refers to the making or breaking of bonds.  
Synthesis Reaction   Bonds are formed to join 2 or more molecules.  
Decomposition Reaction   Bonds are broken; Molecule is broken down.  
Cell Respiration   Energy production within the cells.  
Buffer System   A chemical or pair of chemicals that minimize the changes in pH.  
Water   Makes up 60-75% of the body.  
Water Compartments   Intracellular (65%) Cytoplasm Extracellular (35%) Plasma, tissue fluid, lymph, specialized fluids.  
Oligosaccharides   "Self" antigens in our cell membrane.  
Glycogen   Storage form for excess glucose in the liver.  
Amylase   Enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates.  
Disaccharides   Added to other foods as a sweetener.  
Glucose   Most important energy source for cells.  
Provides fiber to promote peristalsis   Cellulose  
Carbohydrate   Source of energy for the body.  
Blood/Body pH   7.35-7.45  
Acidosis   Lower pH (increase H ions) Confused, disoriented, coma -> die  
Alkalosis   Higher pH (decrease H ions) Irritablility, seizures, arrest -> die  
Buffer system - Bicarbonate   1st responder -> tissue, blood  
Buffer system - Phosphate   kidneys  
Buffer system - Protein   inside the cell  
Buffer system - Respiratory   Rate of breathing  
Calcium   Ca  
Hydrogen   H  
Carbon   C  
Fluorine   F  
Sodium   Na  
Magnesium   Mg  
Phosphorus   P  
Sulfur   S  
Chlorine   Cl  
Potassium   K  
Manganese   Mn  
Iron   Fe  
Cobalt   Co  
Copper   Cu  
Zinc   Zn  
Iodine   I  
Calcium   Provides strength in bones and teeth; Necessary for blood clotting; Necessary for muscle contraction.  
Phosphorus   Provides strength in bones and teeth; Part of DNA, RNA and ATP; Part of cell membranes  
Iron   Part of hemoglobin in red blood cells, transports oxygen; Part of myoglobin in muscles, stores oxygen; Necessary for cell respiration.  
Copper   Necessary for cell respiration; Necessary for hemoglobin synthesis.  
Sodium   Necessary for muscle contraction; necessary for nerve impulse transmission.  
Potassium   Necessary for muscle contraction; necessary for nerve impulse transmission; Clotting.  
Sulfur   Part of some proteins such as insulin and keratin  
Cobalt   Part of Vitamin B12  
Iodine   Part of thyroid hormones - thyroxine  
Fat Soluble Vitamins   A,D,E,K  
Vitamin A   Synthesis rhodopsin, calcification of growing bones, maintenance of epithelial tissues  
Vitamin D   Absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine. Contributes to immune responses, action of insulin and preservation of muscle mass and strength.  
Vitamin E   An antioxidant-prevents destruction of cell membranes. Contributes to wound healing and detoxifying ability of the liver.  
Vitamin K   Synthesis of prothrombin and other clotting factors  
Folic Acid   Synthesis of DNA, especially in blood cell production. Contributes to development of fetal CNS.  
The alimentary tube   Extends from the mouth to the anus.  
The alimentary tube   Consists of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.  
Accessory organs   teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.  
Chemical digestion   Enzymes break down food / break down of complex organics into simpler organics.  
Mechanical digestion   CHEWING - breaks food down into smaller pieces.  
Carbohydrates (metabolizes) are digested to...   Glucose  
Lipids/Fats (metabolizes) are digested to...   fatty acids and glycogen  
Proteins (metabolizes) are digested to...   amino acids  
Starches   Found in plant foods  
Saturated fats   animal foods and solid at room temperature  
Unsaturated fats   transfats and liquid at room temperature  
Structural proteins   Form pores and receptor sites in cell membranes; Keratin/Collagen  
Hormones   Insulin-enables cells to take in glucose; lowers blood glucose level; Growth hormone-increases protein synthesis and cell division  
Hemoglobin   Enables red blood cells to carry oxygen  
Myoglobin   Stores oxygen in muscle cells  
Antibodies   Produced by lymphocytes (white blood cells); label pathogens for destruction  
Myosin and actin   Muscle structure and contraction  
Enzymes   Catalyst reactions  
Steroids/Cholesterol   Part of cell membrane; Converted to Vitamin D: Converted by the liver to bile salts -> emulsify fats during digestion; Precursor for steriod hormones (estrogen/testosterone)  
Phospholipids   Part of cell membrane (lecithin); forms the myelin sheath to provide electrical insulation for neurons.  
LDL   Bad cholesterol (clogs your arteries)  
HDL   Good cholesterol (higher in protein and lower in cholesterol--more easily removed from the blood by the liver and excreted in bile.  
WATER   Is a solvent; Is a lubricant; Changes temperature slowly.  
DNA   Found in chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell, it is the genetic code for hereditary characteristics  
RNA   copies the genetic code of DNA to direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm of cells.  
ATP   energy transferring molecule, formed when cell respiration releases energy from food molecules, used for energy requiring cellular processes  
Salivary glands   Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual  
Lower Esophageal Sphinter   Relaxes to allow food to enter the stomach, then contracts to prevent the backup of stomach contents.  
Peristalsis   Waves of muscular contractions (one-way) that propel the contents through a hollow organ.  
Mucosa   Lining of the alimentary tube; produces mucus.  
Submucosa   Vascular-blood supply; Innervated-has communication with brain for digestion.  
External Muscle Layer   Layer that is responsible for peristalsis.  
Serosa   Outermost layer; Above the diaphragm -> mesentary membrane; Peritoneum -> Abdominal cavity.  
Stomach   Mechanical digestion is complete; Begins the digestion of protein.  
Mucous cells   Secrete mucus which coats the stomach lining.  
Chief cells   Secrete pepsin.  
Parietal cells   Produce Hydrochloric acid.  
G cells   Produces gastric juice.  
Tripsin   Protein enzyme  
Pepsin   Protein enzyme  
Lipase   Lipid enzyme  
Bile   Lipid enzyme  
Only digestive function of the Liver   to produce bile.  
Metabolizes carbs, proteins, fats   Liver  
Stores fat-soluble Vitamins A,D,E,K   Liver  
Most important function of the liver   Detoxification  
Phagocytosis by Kupffer cells   In the liver -> Destroy the bacteria, removing them from the blood before the blood returns to the heart.  
2 major functions of the pancreas   To make insulin and to make enzymes and bicarbonate juice and pancreatic juice.  
Gallbladder   Stores bile until needed; cystic duct joins hepatic duct to form common bile duct.  
Bile   Mostly water; breaks down fats; excretory function -> carries bilirubin and excess cholesterol for elimination in feces.  
Secretin   Hormone produced by the duodenum; stimulates the production of bile.  
Functions of the Large Intestine   Absorption of water, minerals, vitamins; elimination of undigestible material.  
ectomy   excision/removal  
itis   inflammation  
logy   study of  
endo   within  
hemi   half  
quadri   four  
dys   pain  
oma   tumor  
megaly   enlargement  
cyan/o   blue  
erythr/o   red  
R/O   rule out  
NAD   no acute distress  
WNL   within normal limits  
febrile   fever, elevated temperature  
morbidity   a diseased state  
mortality   being subject to death  
kg   kilogram  
h.s.   hours sleep  
PMH   past medical history  
HPI   history of present illness  
alimentary tube   hollow tube extending from mouth to anus  
lower esophageal sphincter/cardiac sphincter   opening from esophagus to stomach  
rugae   folds of the mucosa of organs such as the stomach and urinary bladder which permits the expansion of the organ  
cecum   first part of the large intestine, the dead-end portion adjacent to the ileum  
appendicitis   inflammation of the appendix  
defacation reflex   spinal cord reflex that eliminate stool from the colon  
albumin   a liver protein which is found in the plasma; contributes to osmotic pressure  
ascites   abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal space  
GERD   heartburn, reflux of contents from the stomach back into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux disease)  
Atom   the smallest part of an element.  
Which STOMACH cell makes mechanical digestion possible?   Parietal cells (make hydrochloric acid)  
Fats are only broken down here...   the duodenum  
Normal body temperature range   96.5F - 99.5F  
THYROXINE (Factor that affects heat production)   The most important regulator of day-to-day metabolism; increases use of food for ATP production, thereby increasing heat production  
EPINEPHRINE AND SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION (Factor that affects heat production)   important in stress situations; increases the metabolic activity of many organs; increases ATP and heat production  
SKELETAL MUSCLES (Factor that affects heat production)   Normal muscle tone requires ATP; the heat produced is about 25% of the total body heat at rest  
LIVER (Factor that affects heat production)   Always metabolically active; produces as much as 20% of total body heat at rest  
FOOD INTAKE (Factor that affects heat production)   Increases activity of the GI tract; increates ATP and heat production  
HIGHER BODY TEMPERATURE (Factor that affects heat production)   Increases metabolic rate, which increases heat production, may become detrimental during high fevers  
Radiation (Heat Loss)   Heat from the body is transferred to cooler objects not touching the skin  
Conduction (Heat Loss)   Loss of heat to cooler air or objects that touch the skin, such as clothing  
Convection (Heat Loss)   Air currents move warm air away from the skin  
Sweating (Heat Loss)   excess body heat evaporates sweat on the skin surface  
Respiratory tract (Heat Loss)   Evaporation - body heat evaporates water from the respiratory mucosa, and water vapor is exhaled  
Urinary tract (Heat Loss)   Urination (urine is at body temperature when eliminated)  
Digestive tract (Heat Loss)   Defecation (feces are at body temperature when eliminated)  
Hypothalmus   responsible for the regulation of body temperature "the thermostat" of the body  
Metabolism   all of the reactions that take place in the body  
Anabolism   synthesis reactions, the bonding together of smaller molecules to form larger ones  
Catabolism   decomposition, the breaking of larger molecules to form smaller molecules  
The potential energy in food is measured in units called...   Calories  
dehydration   raises osmolarity  
osmolarity   the concentration of dissolved materials in the urine  
Electolyte - Sodium   136-142 - creates much of the osmotic pressure of ECF; most abundant cation in ECF; essential for electrical activity of neurons and muscle cells  
Electrolyte - Potassium   3.5-5.0 - creates much of the osmotic pressure of ICF; most abundant cation in ICF; essential for electrical activity of neurons and muscle cells  


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