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AnP II Chaps 31-34

Anatomy & Physiology II Finals

What is the function of the male reproductive system? To ensure the survival of the species
Male essential organ for gamete production Testes
Male reproductive system accessory organs? (5) Genital ducts, Epididymis, Vas deferens, Ejaculatory ducts, & Urethra
Male reproductive system accessory glands? (3) Seminal vesicles (60% of semen), Prostate (30% of semen), & Bulborethral glands (5% of semen)
Male reproductive supporting structures? (3) Scrotum, Penis, & Pair of spermatic cords
Origin of Testosterone secretion? Interstitial cells (between lobules in testes)
Describe the location of Testes in the scrotum One testes in each of 2 scrotal compartments
Describe the structure of lobules in testes Seminiferous tubules, Interstitial cells (of Leydig), Separated by septa, & encased in tunica albuginea
Primary sexual characteristics? (2) Maturity of gonads & reproductive tract
Examples of secondary sexual characteristics? Fat, Hair distribution, Skeletal changes, etc.
What do you call a mature male gamete? Spermatozoon (singular); Spermatozoa (plural)
Name the 3 main parts of a spermatozoon? Head, Midpiece & tail
Name the 3 male reproductive ducts Epididymis, Vas deferens (ductus deferens), & Ejaculatory
Trace the course of seminal fluid from testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ampulla, ejaculatory duct, & urethra
Name the parameters of Male & Female perineum; Name the 2 regions Diamond shape between thighs; anteriorly from symphysis pubis to coccyx posteriorly; Ischial tuberosity on each side laterally. Divided into urogenital triangle (anterior) & anal triangle (posterior)
What is the function of the female reproductive system? To produce offspring & ensure the continuity of the genetic code
Female essential organ for gamete production Gonads (paired ovaries; internal)
Female reproductive accessory organs? (5) Internal genitals (uterine tubes, uterus, vagina): External genitals (vulva): Additional sex glands (mammary glands, etc.)
development of fetus in a place OTHER than the uterus Ectopic pregnancy
Oocyte released from the ovary Ovum
The process of mature egg formation Oogenesis
Describe the structure of the uterus Pear-shaped with 2 main parts (cervix & body
What are the 3 layers of the uterine walls? Inner endometrium, Middle myometrium (muscle), Outer (incomplete parietal peritoneum)
Supplies nutrition into the zygote until the placenta is produced Endometrial glands
Organ that permits exchange of materials between mother's blood and fetal blood Placenta
Cyclical event that allows endometrial renewal Menstruation
A mucous membrane that forms a border around the vagina in young premenstrual females Hymen
Name the external female genitals (7) Mons pubis, Labia majora, Labia minora, Clitoris, Urinary meatus, Vaginal orifice, & Greater vestibular glands
What is the function of the Mons pubis & Labia Protect clitoris & vestibule
Name the 4 female reproductive cycles Ovarian (development of oocytes via meiosis), Menstrual (endometrial cycle), Myometrial (contractions at menstruation), & Gonadotropic (pituitary secretions)
Name the 4 phases of mentrual cycle Menses, Postmentrual phase, Ovulation, & Premenstrual phase
Female hormonal controls (4) Ovary changes, Uterine changes,Low amounts of FSH & LH,Gonadotropin changes
3 decades of female reproductive maturity Menarche
Termination (cessation) of menstrual cycles Menopause
Span of prenatal period from conception to birth
Span of postnatal period from birth until death
Study of changes occuring during the cycles of life from conception to death Human Development Biology
Nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced to half their original number through separation of homologous pairs Meiosis
Complex process in which a cell's DNA is replicated & divided equally between 2 daughter cells Mitosis
production of spematozoa Spermatogenesis
Production of ova Oogenensis
Expulsion of mature ovum from mature ovarian follicle Ovulation
Expulsion of seminal fluid from male into female vagina Insemination
Heat from oviducts (fallopian tubes) Thermotaxis
Attracting cells in or away from the vicinity Chemotaxis
Fertilized ovum; genetically complete Zygote
Solid mass of cells formed from zygote; takes 3 days Morula
Hollow ball of cells formed after Morulla phase; implants into uterine lining Blastocyst
Name for the outer wall of Blastocyst Trophoblast
Inner portion of Blastocyst, consist of yolk sac & amniotic cavity Inner Cell Mass
Endocrine Function of Placenta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG); stimulates Corpus Luteum to continue Estrogen & Progesterone secretion
Span of Gestation period Entire pregnancy (39 weeks of 3 month segments; trimesters)
Span of Embryonic Phase form Fertilization until end of week 8
Span of Fetal Phase Weeks 8 to 39
Name the cell's 3 germ layers formed from cells of embryonic disk Endoderm (inside layer), Mesoderm (middle layer), & Ectoderm (outside layer)
The process of tissue development Histogenesis
The arrangement of tissues into organs Organogenesis
What hormone triggers Parturition (birth)? Cortisol (it also reduces hCG/Progesterone secretion)
Define the 3 Stages of Labor One (contractions-dilation); Two (dilation-birth); Three (expulsion of placenta)
Type of twins; splitting of embryonic tissue from same zygote early in development Identical Twins
Type of twins; feritilization of 2 different ova by 2 different spermatozoa Fraternal Twins
Span of Infancy Birth until 18 months
Span of Childhood from end of infancy to sexual maturity, or puberty
Span of Adolescent Teenage years (13 to 19)
Anatomy's description of adulthood period Maintenance of existing body tissues
Degenerative changes Senescence
Build-up of fatty deposits on blood vessel walls (narrowing) Atherosclerosis
"hardening" of the arteries Arteriosclerosis
Far-sightedness due to hardening of eye lens Presbyopia
Cloudy eye lens, which impairs vision Cataract
Increased pressure with eyeball Glaucoma
Clinical name for High Blood Pressure Hypertension
The study of inheritance; how biological characteristics are inherited Genetics
Directly inherited diseases Hereditary diseases
Analysis of all proteins encoded by the genome (human proteome) Proteomics
Analysis of the sequence contained in the genome Genomics
Masks the effects of recessive gene for the same trait Dominant Gene
effects are masked by the effects of a dominant gene for the same trait Recessive gene
Gene combination Genotype
Genotype with 2 identical forms of a gene Homozygous
Genotype with 2 different forms of a gene Heterozygous
Manner in which genotype is expressed; how an individual looks as a result of genotype Phenotype
Possesssing the gene for a recessive trait but does not exhibit the trait Carrier
When more than one gene is involved in producing a particular trait (e.g. height) Polygenic traits
When 2 different dominant genes occur together, each will have an equal effect Codominant traits
Change in the genetic code Mutation
Extra information by genetic mutation Insertion
Missing information by genetic mutation Deletion
An agent that can cause genetic mutations Mutagens
Disease caused by recessive genes in chromosome pair 7. Impairment of chloride ion transport across cell membranes Cystic Fibrosis
Disease caused by a recessive gene that fail to produce phenylalanine hydroxylase. Phenylalanine cannot be metabolized and thus accumulates. High concentrations of phenylalanine destroy brain tissue Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Disease caused by a recessive condition with missing lipid-processing enzyme. Abnormal lipids accumulate in brain Tay-Sachs Disease
Disease caused by a dominant genetic disorder of connective tissues Osteogenesis imperfecta
Disease caused by a dominant inherited disorder. Characterized by multiple benign tumors of glial cells that surround nerve fibers Multiple neurofibromatosis
Down syndrome's mental retardation and multiple defects Trisomy 21
Disease in males having more than one X chromosomes Kleinfelter Syndrome
Genotype XO. Characterized by failure of ovaries & other organs to mature, sterility, cardiovascular defects, dwarfism, webbed neck & learning disorders Turner Syndrome
Genes capable of causing cancer Oncogenes
Name the 3 genetic basis of cancer Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Genetic abnormalities
Name 3 ways of prevention & treatment of genetic diseases Genetic counseling, Gene replacement, & Karyotype
Chart illustrating genetic relationships in a family over several generations Pedigree
Grid used to determine the mathematical probability of inheriting genetic traits Punnet Square
Ordered arrangement of photographs of chromosomes from a single cell; used in genetic counseling to identify chromosomal disorders Karyotype
Therapy by changing the genetic code to replace normal proteins that are absent in genetic disorders Gene Therapy
Abnormal, disease-causing proteins replaced by "Therapeutic" genes Gene replacement
Normal genes introduced to augment production of needed protein Gene Augmentation
Created by: cpdg