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OP Drugs

Therapeutic drugs used in Opthalmology

Type of Therapeutic DrugDrugs
Topical Anesthetics Proparacaine, Alcaine, Fluracaine (Short Acting) Tetracaine (Long acting)
NSAIDS Diclofenac Sodium sol'n (Voltaren) - TX of post-op inflammation, relief of photophobia Ketorlac tromethamine sol'n (Acular) - relief of ocular itching d/t allergies Flurbiprofen sodium sol'n (Ocufen, Allergan) - Prevention of intraoperative miosis
Corticosteroids Prednisolone acetate sol'n (Pred Forte) Prednisolone sodium phosphate Dexamethasone/Tobramycin oint/susp. (Alcon) Dexamethsone 0.05%, 0.1% oint/soln Fluorometholone 0.1% soln (Flarex) Fluorometholone 0.25% susp. (FML-Forte)
Decongestants Naphazoline (Visine A, Clear Eyes, Vasoclear) Tetrahydrolozine (Murine) Patients with narrow anterior chamber angles or narrow-angle glaucoma should not use these products.
Antihistamines Levocabastine HCL 0.05% soln (Livostin) Emedastine difumarate 0.05% soln (Emadine) Azelastin (Optilast) Pheniramine maleate (Naphcon A, Opcon A) - OTC Olopatadine HCL (Patanol) -mast cells Cromolyn Sodium (Crolom) - mast cells
Antibiotics - Sulfonamides MOA: Inhibits formation of folic acid Used for: Lid infections, conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion/ulcer, prevention of infection Sulfacetamide (Bleth 10) Sulfisoxazole (Cetamide)
Antibiotics - Fluoroquinolones Used especially in prevention/tx of pseudomonas infection - Ciprofloxacin (Ciloxan) sol'n or ointment - Ofloxacin (Ocuflox) sol'n - Levofloxacin (Quixin) - Gatifloxacin (Zymar) - Moxifloxacin (Vigamox)
Antibiotics - Aminoglycosides MOA: bind to ribosome and prevent tRNA synthesis Used for: same as the sulfonamides - Gentamycin (Garamycin) sol'n or ointment - Tobramycin (Tobrex) sol'n - Neomycin (Not used often because of high incidence of allergies)
Antibiotics - Other - Erythromycin sol'n or ointment (used for prevention of gonorrhea transmission in childbirth) - Bacitracin ointment (inhibits cell wall synthesis) - Trimethoprim Sulfate - Polymyxin B Sulfate (Polytrim)
Antivirals Trifuridine (Viroptic) Vidarabine (Vira-a) Idoxuridine (Herplex)
Cycloplegics MOA: paralyzes the ciliary muscle, inducing pupil dilation -Atropine (Isopto Atropine) - Scopolamine (Isopto Hyoscine) - Cyclopentolate (Cyclogyl) - Mydriacyl (Tropicamide)
Agents for the TX of Glaucoma - Beta Blockers * Decrease aqueous humor formation* - Betaxolol (Betoptic) *The best one for asthmatics* - Timolol maleate (Timoptic) - Levobunolol (Betagan, AKBeta)
Agents for the TX of Glaucoma -Sympathomimetic (Alpha Adrenergic agonists) * Reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing outflow and reducing production of aqueous humor* - Brimonidine (Alphagan) - Apraclonidine (Iopidine) 0.5%, 1%
Agents for the TX of Glaucoma - Miotics (parasympathomimetics) * increased outflow of the aqueous fluid* - Pilocarpine (Pilocar, Pilagan)
Agents for the TX of Glaucoma - Prostaglandin Analogs * Increase uveoscleral outflow of the aqueous * - Latanoprost (Xalatan) - Travapost (Travoprost) - Bimatoprost (Lumigan)
Agents for the TX of Glaucoma - Carbonic Anhydrous Inhibitors * Reduce secretion of aqueous humor by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase in ciliary body * - Dorzolamide HCl (Trusopt) 2% - Brinzolamide (Azopt) 1%
Acetazolamide (Diamox) Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor - Glaucoma
Dorzolamide HCl (Trusopt) 2% Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitor - Glaucoma
How do Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors treat Glaucoma? They reduce secretion of aqueous humor by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary body
Brinzolamide (Azopt) 1% Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor - Glaucoma
How do Prostaglandin analogs treat Glaucoma? They increase the uveoscleral outflow of the aqueous
Latanoprost (Xalatan) Prostaglandin analog - Glaucoma
Travaprost (Travoprost) Prostaglandin analog - Glaucoma
Bimatoprost (Lumigan) Prostaglandin analog - Glaucoma
How do Miotics (parasympathomimetics) treat Glaucoma? They increase the outflow of the aqueous fluid
Pilocarpine (Pilocar, Pilagan) Miotic (parasympathomimetic) - Glaucoma
How do Sympathomimetics (alpha adrenergic agonists) treat glaucoma? They reduce IOP by increasing outflow and reducing production of aqueous humor
Brimonidine (Alphagan) Sympathomimetic (alpha adrenergic agonist) - glaucoma
Apraclonidine (Iopidine) Sympathomimetic (alpha adrenergic agonist) - glaucoma
How do Beta Blockers treat Glaucoma? They decrease aqueous humor formation
Betaxolol (Betoptic) Beta Blocker - Glaucoma *Best one for asthmatics*
Timolol maleate (Timoptic) Beta blocker - Glaucoma
Levobunolol (Betagan, AKBeta) Beta Blocker - Glaucoma
What do cycloplegics do? They paralyze the ciliary muscle, inducing pupil dilation
Atropine (Isopto Atropine) Cycloplegic
Scopolamine (Isopto Hyoscine) Cycloplegic
Cyclopentolate (Cyclogyl) Cycloplegic
Mydriacyl (Tropicamide) Cycloplegic
Trifuridine (Viroptic) Antiviral
Vidarabine (Vira-a) Antiviral
Idoxuridine (Herplex) Antiviral
Erythromycin sol’n or ointment Antibiotics - other
Bacitracin ointment Antibiotics - other *inhibits cell wall synthesis*
Trimetoprim Sulfate Antibiotics - other
Polymyxin B Sulfate (Polytrim) Antibiotics - other
How do Aminglycoside antibiotics treat eye infections? They bind to the ribosome and prevent tRNA synthesis
Gentamycin (Garamycin) Aminoglycoside antibiotic
Tobramycin (Tobrex) Aminoglycoside antibiotic
Which aminoglycoside antibiotic is not used often because of its high incidence of allergic reactions? Neomycin
Neomycin Aminoglycoside antibiotic
When is the use of fluoroquinolones strong encouraged? For infections involving contact lens wearers (pseudomonas)
Ciprofloxacin (Ciloxan) Fluoroquinolone
Ofloxacin (Ocuflox) Fluoroquinolone
Levofloxacin (Quixin) Fluorquinolone
Gatifloxacin (Zymar) Fluoroquinolone
Moxifloxacin (Vigamox) Fluoroquinolone
How do the sulfonamides treat eye infections? They inhibit the formation of folic acid
What are the sulfonamides used to treat? Lid infections, conjunctivitis, corneal abrasions/ulcers and prevention of infections
Sulfacetamide (Bleth 10) Sulfonamide
Sulfoxazole (Cetamide) Sulfonamide
In what patient is the use of ocular antihistamines contraindicated? Contact lens wearers
Levocabastine HCL (Livostin) Antihistamine
Emedastine difumarate (Emadine) Antihistamine
Azelastin (Optilast) Antihistamine
Pheniramine maleate (Naphcone A, Opcon A) Antihistamine OTC
Olopatadine HCL (Patanol) Antihistamine - mast cell stabilizer
Cromolyn Sodium (Crolom) Antihistamine - mast cell stabilizer
In what patient is the use of ocular decongestants contraindicated? Patients with narrow-angle glaucoma
Naphazoline (Visine A, Clear Eyes, Vasoclear) Decongestant
Tetrahydrolize (Murine) Decongestant
Prednisolone acetate (Pred Forte) Corticosteroids
Prednisolone sodium phosphate Corticosteroid
Dexamethasone/Tobramycin oint/susp (Alcon) Corticosteroid
Dexamethasone oint/susp Corticosteroid
Fluorometholone (Flarex) Corticosteroid
Fluorometholone 0.25% susp. (FML - forte) Corticosteroid
Diclofenac sodium (Voltaren) NSAID (used for TX of post-op inflammation, relief of photophobia)
Ketorlac tromethamine sol’n (Acular) NSAID (used for relief of ocular itching due to allergies)
Flurbiprofen sodium (Ocufen, Allergan) NSAID (used for prevention of intraoperative miosis)
Proparacaine Topical anesthetic - short acting
Alcaine Topical Anesthetic - short acting
Fluracaine Topical anesthetic - short acting
Tetracaine Topical Anesthetic - Long Acting
Created by: kacycee15