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Anatomy Vocab Ch 6

Anatomy Vocab Ch 6 Marieb

muscle types skeletal, smooth, cardiac
muscles word comes from Mus, meaning little mouse, makes up nearly half of the body's mass; the machines of the body
elongated skeletal and smooth muscle cells, shape of the cell has led to the name muscle fibers
muscle fibers the elongated fibers of smooth and skeletal muscle
myofilaments equivalent of the microfilaments of the cytoskeleton
sarcoplasm equivalent of the cytoplasm of the cell; the interior of the muscle cell; sarco=flesh
myo- and mys- = muscle
skeletal muscle fibers huge, cigar shaped multinucleate cells, largest of the muscle fiber types; can be seen with the naked eye; soft and fragile; thousands of fibers bundled together by connective tissue
striated muscle fibers have obvious stripes; skeletal muscle
voluntary muscle the only muscle type subject to concious control
skeletal muscle tissue skeletal, striated and voluntary; can contract rapidly and with great force but tires easily
endomysium connective tissue sheath enclosing the muscle fiber
perimysium coarse fibrous membrane wrapping sheathed muscle fibers
fascicle bundle of fibers
epimysium overcoat of connective tissue binding fascicles bundles
tendons blended epimysium tissue; provide durability and conserve space; tough collagenic fibers
aponeuroses sheetlike fibers that attach muscles indirectly to bones, cartilage or connective tissue coverings
smooth muscle no striations, involuntary, cannot consciously control it; found in hollow visceral organs ie stomach, urinary bladder, etc; visceral, nonstriated, involuntary
smooth muscle cell sincle nucleus, spindle-shaped, arranged in layers; do the housekeeping jobs of the body; does its job tirelessly
cardiac muscle form the bulk of the heart wall; is striated, involuntary; cushioned by small amounts of soft connective tissue arranged in bundles
intercalated discs junctions of muscle fibers
skeletal muscle maintains posture, stabilized joints, generates heat; accounts for at least 40% of body mass; made up of fascicles
ATP used to power muscle contraction, releasing heat in the muscle; the only energy source to power muscle activity; renewable
sarcolemma the muscle husk; the plasma membrane
myofibrils long ribbonlike organelles which nearly fill the cytoplasm
light and dark bands light (I) and dark (A) bands give the muscle cell as a whole its striped appearance
sarcomeres chains of tiny contractile units that make up the myofibril; boxcar
myofilaments threadlike, what causes the banding pattern in the sarcomeres; two types, do not shorten during contraction, slide past each other
Z disc, M line and H zone Z is the darker area, H is a lighter central area, H contains tiny protein rods that hold the thick filaments together
thick filaments myosin filament, made mostly of bundled molecules of the protein myosin; contain ATPase enzymes, generating power for muscle contraction
myosin bundled molecules of protein
cross bridges myosin heads; link the thick and thin filaments together during contraction
thin filaments composed of contractile protein actin and regulatory proteins; AKA actin filaments, overlap thick filaments
actin filaments same as thin filaments
bare zone the lighter color zones of the thick and thin filaments
skeletal muscle cell striations precise arrangement of myofilaments in the myofibrils, producing the banding pattern in the muscle cells
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) muscle fiber organelle, specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum, stores clacium and releases calcium ions into cytoplasm on demand when muscle fiber is stiumlated to contract
function of muscle cells excitability (responsiveness, irritability), contractility, extensibility, elasticity
motor unit one neuron and all skeletal muscle cells
axon (nerve fiber) long threadlike extension of the neuron; forming junctions with the sarcolemma of a different muscle cell
neuromuscular junction the joining of nerve and muscle cells
synaptic cleft the gap between nerve endings and muscle cell membranes, filled with interstitial fluid
neurotransmitter the chemical created when nerve impulses reach the axon terminal
acetylcholine (ACh) the neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle cells
action potential sarcolemma becomes permeable to sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+), leaving excess of positive ions, allowing Na+ entry; the upset of the electrical current; contraction of the muscle cell; takes just a few thousandths of a second for this process
muscle cell skeletal muscle cell contracts to its fullest extent, never partially contracts
graded responses different degrees of shortening in response to stimuli; frequency of muscle stimulation or number of cells stimulated
muscle twitches single, brief, jerky contractions (not normal)
tetanic contraction (fused)(complete tetanus) when muscle is stimulated so rapidly that no evidence of relaxation is seen, contraction is smooth and sustained
unfused (incomplete tetanus) state of the muscle before tetanic contraction
ATP regeneration creation of creatine phosphate (CP), aerobic respiration, anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid formation
creatine phosphate (CP) direct phosphorylation of ADP; found only in muscle fibers; this type is soon exhausted
aerobic respiration supplies 95% of ATP for muscle activity; occurs in the mitrochondria and involves a series of metabolic pathways that use oxygen; requires continuous delivery of oxygen and nutrient fuels to keep it going
oxidative phosphorylation the pathways providing aerobic respiration
glycoysis the initial step of glucose breakdown, does not require oxygen; glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid and captured in ATP bonds
lactic acid pyruvic acid generated during glycolysis, converted to help provide strength for working muscles
anerobic glycolysis only 5% of ATP for muscle strength, 2 1/2 times faster; the end result of production of glycolysis and lactic acid
muscle fatigue muscles used strenuously for a long period of time
oxygen deficit oxygen levels drop, causing muscles to become fatigued; ionic imbalance
tension actin and mysin myofilaments interacting, thin actic filaments pass the thick myosin myofilaments
isotonic contractions myofilaments are successful in sliding movement, muscle shortens, movement occurs
isometric contractions myosin myofilaments are spinning their wheels, tension in the muscle keeps increasing; resistance training
muscle tone the state of continuous partial contraction
flaccid soft and flabby
atrophy wasting away
aerobic endurance less fatigue, caused when increased blood supply to the muscles, more oxygen is stored and more mitochondria cells are formed
body movements flexion, extension, rotation, abduction, adduction, circumduction
origin attachment of muscle to the immovable or less movable bone
insertion attachment of muscle to the movable bone
flexion movement that decreases the angle of the joint and brings two bones closer toegther
extension movement that increases the angle or distance between two bones or parts of the body
rotation movement of a bone around its axis
abduction moving a limb away from midline
adduction movement of a limb toward midline
circumduction combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction; ball and socket
dorsiflexion lifting up the foot so that top surface is closer to the shin
plantar flexion pointing the foot down so that top surface is farther away from the shin
inversion turning the sole of the foot to the midline
eversion turning the sole of the foot away from midline
supination (supine) lying on the back, face or front upward
pronation (prone) lying on the front, back upward
opposition bringing two surfaces together, as in opposing fingers meeting the thumb
prime mover the muscle that has most responsibility for movement
antagonist muscles that oppose a movement
synergist help movement by removing opposing movement; balance the movement
fixator hold something so that movement can be done with no opposition
rectus straight
oblique at a slant
maximus largest
minimus smallest
longus long
biceps two origins
triceps three origins
quadriceps four origins
cleido has clavicle attachment site
sterno has sternum attachement site
deltoid triangular
extensor action of extending
adductor action of bringing closer
flexor action of bringing toward or together
sphincters sqeezing muscles
circular muscle are sphinceters, typically found surrounding external body openings
convergent muscle fascicles converge towrd a single insertion tendon; triangular
parallel fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle; straplike
fusiform spindle-shaped muscle with expanded midsection, such as the bicep
pennate short fascicles attach at a slant to a central tendon
unipennate muscles attach to one side of the tendon
bipennate fascicles insert into opposite sides of the tendon
mutipennate fascicles insert into several sides of the tendon
muscular dystrophy congenital muscular problem; inherited muscle-destroying disease that affects specific uscle groups; muscles degenerate and atrophy
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy almost exclusively in boys; disease progresses from extremities upward, affecting head and chest muscles; most die young and of respiratory failure; muscles lack dystrophin
myasthenia gravis affects muscles during adulthood; difficulty in swallowing and talking, general muscle weakness and fatigue; shortage of acetylcholine receptors; death due to respiratory failure
Created by: erosok



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