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More info from Block 1

Diseases a/w Collagen deficits scurvy (Vit C deficiency); Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; Osteogenesis Imperfecta
disease w/ elastin/fibrillin deficit Marfan syncrome
vascular transmigration; facilitated by PECAM-1 diapedesis
vascular dilation esp arterioles; increase vascular permeability esp venules histamine
increase vascular permeability serotonin
release arachidonic acid from lipid membrane of cells; release PAF from lipid membrane of cells PLA2
indcues platelet agreggation; induce neutrophil oxidative burst; induce arachidonic acid production by activating PLA2; induces leukocyte-endothelial adhesion Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)
secreted by NK cells; plays the predominant role in macrphage activation (esp in relation to granuloma formation) interferon gamma (INF-y)
stimulate neutrophil adhesion leukotrienes
exert an inhibitory effect on many inflammation processes lipoxins
elevated ESR RBCs clump because of the increase of acute phase proteins esp fibrinogen
occurs when injurious agent or forgein material cannot be eradicated & body switches to a strategy of containment Chronic Suppurative inflammation
chronic macrophage activation causes macrophages to swell and take on an epitheloid cell appearance Granulomatous inflammation
most common cause of MV stenosis? Rheumatic heart disease
most common cause of MV regurgitation? papillary dysfunctino due to ischemic heart dis or Mitral valve prolapse due to myxomatous degenration of the MV
most common cause of aortic valve stenosis? congenital bicuspid aortic valve & senile fibrocalcific degeneration
most common cause of myocarditis? Coxsackie B & Adenovirus type 2 & 3
mitral valve stenosis triad? 1) loud S1; 2) mitral valve opening snap; 3) mid-distolic murmur best heard @ cardiac apcex
primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy a/w mutations in the??? myosin heavy beta chain; actin; tropomyosin; titin
where do we see WHORLED PATTERN in the myocardial muscle bundles? Primary Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
pulmonary circulation maintained by Right Atrium Fontan heart (seen in Arrhythmogenic RV Cardiomyopathy)
repalcemnt of portions of the myocardial wall, usually the RV by fibrofatty tissue w/ loss of cardiocytes; show interved T waves in anterior chest leads over R ventricle and epsilon wave in early ST segment; only effective Tx: defibrillator implantation Arrythmogenic RV Cardiomyopathy
Where is S3, S4 & S7 present? Congestive Heart Failure
difficulty in repolarization leads to uncoordinated repolarization which predisposes to episodes of spontaenous ventricular re-entry arrythmias sep Torsade de Pointes Long QT syndrome
compensatory mechanism of cells incapable of cell division hypertrophy
organs where fatty change (steatosis) is common? liver, myocardiumk kidney
enzymatically binds to damaged proteins to facilitate their removal ubiquitin
proteins involved in apoptosis also involved in tumoregenesis bcl2 & p53
adult progeria; autosomal recessive; defective DNA helicase enzymes Werner Syndrome
pediatric progeria Cockayne syndrome
Connective tissue disorder; autosomal recessive Acrogeria
help regulate the clotthing cascade alpha-2-antiplasmin
inhibits the initiation of complement cascade c1 esterase inhibitor
neutralize reactive oxygen radicals Metal binding protein (manganese superoxide dismutase)
increased levels of bone marrow granulopoiesis; cytoplasmic areas of condensed ribosomes Dohle bodies
valve most likely involved in IVDA related Infective endocarditis Tricuspid valve
Infective Endocarditis where pahents have NO structural disease and NO preexisting heart murmur community acquired ACUTE IE
s/s: intermittent claudication, impotence, decreased or absent femoral pulses; a/w aortic narrowing in the abdominal aorta below the renal stenosis Leriche syndrome
fibrointimal proliferation creating 'onion skin' appearache; commonly located in kidnyes hyperplastic arteriosclerosis
higher lipid content of lipid core; thinner fibrous cap; increased leukocyte activity at shoulder regions of plaque vulnerable plaque
due to reoxygenation in reversible cardiocyte injury which causes extreme contraction of the cardiocyte filaments contraction band necrosis 'rigor bands'
retina may demonstrate orange-yellow plaque at bifurcation of vessels Hollenhurst plaque (seen in cholesterol embolization syndrome)
red-blue skin momttling in reticular (net-like) pattern over distal extremities due to blood flow stasis cutaneous livedo reticularis
chronic hypoxia due to chronic respiratory insufficiency due to inhibition of respiratory movement from obesity Pickwickian syndrome
Created by: cbelmonte