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The Nervous System

CNS for A&P

TermDefinition and location
longitudinal fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres from one another
transverse fissure separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
gyri elevated ridges on tissues of brain surface
sulci Shallow grooves between the gyri
lateral sulcus separates termporal lobe from the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe
central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. Contains pre and postcentral gyri.
cerebral cortex the conscious mind; contains motor, sensory, and association areas.
motor area controls voluntary movement (frontal lobe)
sensory area conscious awareness of incoming stimuli
association area integrate, analyze, evaluate information for purposeful action
6 lobes on each side: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insular, and libmic
Frontal Lobe voluntray muscle activation, emotions and judgments, Broca's area ( controls motor aspect of speech), and frontal eye field
Primary motor area in precentral gyrus. Allows for voluntary control of skeletal movement.
Damage to primary motor area affects voluntary movement, not reflex movements
Pyramidal cells in precentral gyrus, form the voluntary motor tract
voluntary motor tract also called corticospinal tract
Premotor cortex found anterior to precentral gyrus. controls learned motor patterns like typing.
Broca's area in left frontal lobe. Controls speaking ability.
Damage to Broca's area failure of word formation, younger than 10 can re-establish in the right hemisphere
Frontal eye field voluntary movement of eyes
Parietal Lobe Postcentral gyrus: primary sensory cortex for integration of sensation; receives fibers conveying touch, prioproception, pain and temperature from the opposite side of the body
Primary somatosensory cortex in postecentral gyrus, info received from proprioreceptors in muscles and skin's sensory receptors to identify the area being stimulated.
Somatosensory association area analyzes and evaluates sensory inputs for texture, size, relationship of its parts. Recognition by stored memories.
Occipital lobe visual input and interpretation
Primary visual cortex info from optic nerve for perception of visual stimuli (Occipital lobe)
Damage to primary visual cortex total blindness
Visual association area recognize/interpret visual images by past experience (occipital lobe)
damage to visual association area sight ok but unable to interpret what is seen
Temporal lobe receives and processes auditory stimuli, Wernicke's area(language comprehension)
primary auditory area superior margin of temporal lobe, input from cochlear receptors for pitch, rhythm, loudness (temporal lobe)
auditory association area stores memories of sounds for reference, ability to distinguish (speech vs singing)
olfactory cortex sensory info from chemoreceptors in nose (temporal)
gustatory cortex info from taste buds (temporal)
Insula forms the floor of lateral sulcus; memory coding, integration of sensory inform with visceral responses, coordinating the cardiovasuclar response to stress
prefrontal cortex personality, judgement, intellect, moods (limbic system). Develops by positive and negative feedback/social cues.
affective language areas interprets nonverbal, emotional components (tone of voice)
General interpretation area typically left hemisphere, stores complex auditory and visual memory patterns. Receives info from all sensory association areas.
Damage to gen. interpretation area hear individual words but cannot speak in understandable form
Wernicke's area language expression/comprehension, sounding out words *permanently assigned before adolescence
Damage to wernicke inability to understand words seen or heard, words spoken do not make sense together
Limbic system emotional states, located in medial aspects of each cerebral hemisphere and diencephalon
Limbic system functions memory storage/retrieval, motivation, linking conscious functions of cortex with brain stem
Amygdala emotion and memory, esp. fear and anxiety
Hippocampus learning/memory
Damage to Hippocampus can't learn new info (no short term memory)
Reticular formation located in medulla, pons, midbrain in the reticular substance
Function RAS consicousness, arousal, sends signals to cortex and antigravity muscles, receives input from afferent tracts
Reticular inhibitory center medial and anterior section of medulla oblongata, functions to decrease action potentials from RAS, so decreased muscle tone during sleep
Sleep waves Large amplitude, slow frequency
Left hemisphere usually dominate, reasoning language, math, logic
Right hemisphere creativity, intuition, emotion
Disconnection syndrome transection of corpus callosum so R & L hemispheres try to go at the same time. Objects touched by left hand are recognized but can't be verbally idenitified.
Plasticity neuronal connections can change with experience (less with age), skills can transfer to other hemisphere if there is damage
Learning 12 hour baby knows train travels behind curtain will come out the other side; 3 month
Associative learning two stimuli associated with each other (Pavlov)
Non-associative learning imitative behavior; habituation, sensitization
Habituation decreased response to irrelevant stimuli (repeated)
Sensitization exposure to relevant stimuli creates an enhanced response
Short-term memory store 8-11 pieces of information, info in STM lost unless put in LTM
Working memory STM for tasks; looking both ways to cross street
Long-term memory can be reflexive or declarative
Reflexive (LTM) implicit memroy, by repetition, involves amygdala and cerebellum tasks like tying shoes
Declarative (LTM) explicit memory, by conscious attention, involves temporal lobes
Neurotransmitters chage the resting membrane potential; act rapidly for fast synapitc communication, open ion channels
Neuromodulators act upon ion channels, 2nd messenger system
GABA inhibitory CNS neurotransmitter, opens Cl channels on postynaptic targets for hyperpolarization
Glutamate excitatory CNS neurotransmitter, opens Na channels on postsynaptic tragets = depolarization
Cerebral white matter communication between cerebral areas and cerebral cortex and lower CNS, myelinated fiber bundles, oligodendrocytes
Commisural fiber tracts horizontal to connect areas of cerebral hemispheres
Corpus callosum largest commisurre, superior to lateral ventricles
association tract transmit impulses within a single hemisphere, short association fibers connct adjacent gryi, long association fibers connect different cortical lobes
projection tracts vertical to unite cerebral hemispheres with lower brain and spinal cord (connect brain with rest of body)
internal capsule asending and descending projection tracts, form a copmact bundle as they pass betwen thalamus and basal nuclei
corona radiata projection tract fibers disperse into cerebral white matter
Basal nuclei corpus striatum, paired masses og gray matter found within white matter of cerebral hemispheres
Lentiform nucleus Putamen (neurons are active prior to body movements) and Globus pallidus (regulate muscle tone)
Caudate nucleus coordinate gross motor movement patterns like gait, activity of neurons before eye movement
Corpus Striatum the combination of caudate and lentiform nuclei
Functions of Basal nuclei invovled in slow rhythmic movements, inhibit antagonistic movements
Impairment of basal nuclei abnormal posture, muscle tone tremors (Parkinson's, Hunting's Chorea)
Parkinson's substentia nigra cells destroyed, inadequate dopamine = no inhibition of basal nuclei's movement
L-dopa can get through the blood brain barrier, only good for 3-5 years
Diencephalon central core of brain: thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, surrounding the third centricle
Thalamus sensory impulses from spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, to cerebal cortex.
Functions of Thalamus acts as a filter (edits information) afferent impulses from all over the body converge on thalmaic nuclei, some conscious awareness of emotional states
Hypothalamus integrates ANS and endocrine system), maintains body homeostasiss:temperature, appetite, thirst, sexual behavior, and emotion
Epithalamus roof of third ventricle, includes choroid plexus and pineal gland
Pineal gland melatonin from serotonin (sleep-wake), antioxidant for CNS neurons
Choroid plexus forms cerebrospinal fluid
Brain stem midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
Midbrain contains cerebral aqueduct, cerebral peduncles, copora quadrigemina, superior and inferior colliculi
Cerebral aqueduct (in midbrain) connects 3rd and 4th ventricles
Cerebral peduncles pair of fiber bundles on ventral surface of midbrain, contain the corticospinal tracts
corpora quadrigemina rounded emincences on dorsal portion of midbrain, posterior to cerebral aqueduct
Superior colliculi reflex for movments of eyeballs and head in response to visual and other stimuli, coordinate movements for visual tracking
Inferior colliculi reflex for movements of head and trunk in response to auditory stimuli
Pons between midbrain and medulla oblongata, contains deep longitudianl projection fiber for the motor and senosry tracts (connect the spinal cord and medulla with higher brain centers)
Middle cerebellar peduncles (Pons) contains transverse fibers to connect pons with cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata below pon, continuation of spinal cord, contains pyramids and inferior cerebellar peduncles
Pyramids (Medulla) longitudianl ridges contain corticospinal tracts from cerebral cortex
Inferior cerebellar peduncles fiber tracts that conect the medulla to the cerebellum dorsally
Functions medulla visceral nuclei Cardiac center (force/rate of heart by ANS), Vasomotor center (regulates BP), respiratory center
Vasodilation decrease in action potential, decrease in BP
Vasoconstriction increase in action potentials, increase in BP
Cerebellum separated from temoral and occipital lobes by transveres fissure
Functions of Cerebellum subconsciously coordinate fine and gross motor movements, posture, balance, fore and direction of movement
Anatomy of cerebellum 2 cerebellar hemispheres
Vermis connects the cerebellar hemispheres
Folia transversley oriented surface ridges of cerebellum
Anterior and Posterior lobe of Cerebellum integrating and executing movement
Flocculonodular lobe of Cerebellum maintains equillibrium and eye movements
Superior cerebellar peduncles efferent,(away from CNS) and afferent (toward CNS) tracts
Efferent Superior cerebellar pedundcle tract connects to midbrain and cerebral motor cortex via cerebellothalamocoritical tract
Afferent Superior cerebellar peduncle tract input from anterior spinocerebellar tract and sends these to cerebellum
Middle cerebellar peduncles connects pons with cerebellum, one way transmission to cerebellum = awareness of motor cortex's action
Inferior cerebellar peduncles connects cerebellum with medlla, contains afferent nerve tracts (give cerebellum info from proprioreceptors). equilibrium and balance
Meninges dura mater, arachnoid matter, pia mater
Dura mater outer layer composed of periosteal layer and meningeal layer
Peristeal dura mater thicker, inelastic outer layer, adhres to cranial bones
Menigeal dura mater thinner, inner layer invaginates to form flat septa that serve to limit excessive movement of the brain within the skull
Falx cerebri in longitudinal fissure, attaches to crista gali, helps brain move when head moves
Tentorium cerebelli transverse fissure between cerebrum and cerebellum
Arachnoid mater middle meninge, contains serous fluid (allows movment)
Subarachoid space between arachnoid and pia mater, contains CSF arachnoid villa absorbs CSF into dural sinuses
Pia mater thin, vascular loose CT on surface of brain, dips into all sulci and fissures
Cerebsopinal fluid liquid cusion for CNS, water consistency, nutrient rich
Choroid plexuses clusters of capillaries located in ventricles which form CSF
Blood brain barrier endothelium and basal lamina of cappillaries, keeps brain's environment stable
Spinal cord 31 segments, paired spinal nerves
Cervical enlargement contains nerves for upper extremeties, C4-T1
Lumbar enlargement contains neres supplying lower extremeties, T9-T12
Spinal dural sheath formed by single dura mater (only menigeal layer)
epidural space not in brain, only vertebrae, filled with fat, CT and blood vessels
subdural space space between dura and arachnoid mater, contains serous fluid
Subarachnoid space between arachnoid and pia mater, circulation CSF
Grey mater of spinal cord neuron cells cell bodies and neuroglia, anterior, posteral and lateral horns
Anterior (ventral) horns cell bodies somatic motor neurons, motor part of grey mater = voluntary control muscle, axons carried via ventral roots
Posterior (dorsal) horns interneurons, sensory part of grey matter
Lateral honrs autonomic motor neurons innervate visceral organs, axons carried within dorsal roots
Spinal nerves fusing of dorsal and ventral roots.
Dorsal root afferent fibers receive from peripheral sensory receptors
Dorsal root ganglion nerve cell bodies of sensory neurons
White matter myleinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers: ascending tracts (to brain), descending tacts (to spine), horizontal tracts (one side of cord to another)
Names of tracts white column + origin of cell bodies + termination of axons + direction of impulse within tract
Ascending (sensory) tracts to brain, from sensory receptors in skin and propriorectors in muscles/joints/tendons
fasciculi gracilis and fasciculi cuneatus conscious interpretation of light touch, weight discrimination, sterognosis (recongize by touch), conscious proprioception
lateral spinothalmic tract information for pain and temperature
anterior spinothalmic tract information for crude touch and pressure
anterior (ventral) spinocerebellar tract information to cerebellum for subconscious propriocrecption in trunk and lower limbs, coordinates muscle activity
Anterior spinocerebellar tract uses what paths efferent signals from anterior hornos via corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts, back to cerebellum by superior cerebellar peduncle
Posterior (dorsal) spinocerebellar tract information to cerebellum vis ainferio rcerebellar peduncle about subconscious propriorecption in lower limbs
Posterior spinocerebellar tract uses what path receive afferent impulses from somatic recepotrs and golgi tendon organs, helps with joint position, rate of joint movement, muscle contraction
Descending (motor) tracts dliver efferent impulses from the brain--> spinal cord
Pyramidal/corticospinal tract "direct", precise voluntary movement, skilled patterns, includes lateral and anterior corticospinal tracts motor impulses from cerebrum--> spinal cord
Indirect/other motor pathways from brain stem for balance, posture, coarse movements, visually tracking objects
Tectospinal coordinates head and eye movments, arises in superior colliculi of midbrain
Reticulospinal pontine and medullary divisions, controls most unskilled gross movements like walking
Pontine reticulspinal tract excitatory to muscles that support the body against gravity (balance)
Medullary reticulospinal tract inhibits antigravity muscles (up step)
Vestibulospinal balance for skeletal muscle movment in response to movements of the head
Rubrospinal arises from red nucleus in mesencephalon, muscle tone and posture on opposite side of body
lower motor lesions damage to anterior horn motor neurons = flaccid paralysis, neither voluntary or involuntary movement, no reflexes
upper motor lesions pyramidal neurons, spastic paralysis = reflex ok
Three primary germ layers ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
Ectoderm nervous tissue, epidermis
Mesoderm muscle, Connective tissue, mesothelium and endothelium
Endoderm mucous membranes
Notochord rod of mesodermal cells, eventaully replaced by vetebral column
17th day of development ectoderm overlapping notochord thickens to form neural plate
21st day of development raised edges of neural palte form neural folds
23rd day of development superior margins of neural folds fuse to form neural tube, detaches from ectoderm
Anterior end of neural tube forms brain and sensory organs
posterior end of neural tube spinal cord
28th day of development bain forms at anteior neural tube
Three primary brain vesicles (28th day) forebrain (prosencephalon), midbrain (mesencephalon), hindbrain (rhombencephalon)
35th day of development secondary brain vesicles, forebrain divides--> cerebrum, diencephalon (epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalmus), hindbrain pons, cerebellum, medulla oblongata
origin of ventricles of brain from enlargements in central cavity of neural tube
Lateral ventricles pair, one in each cerebral hemisphere, separated by septum pellucidum, communicate with 3rd ventricle via interventricular foramen
Cerebral aqueduct communicates with 3rd and 4th ventricles
Fourth ventricle opens into subarachnoid space, containing CSF
Capillary groups Choroid plexuses on roof of 3rd and 4th ventricles, contain CSF
Sympathetic Division Activates or speeds up organs. "Fight or Flight"
Parasympathetic Division Slows down organs. "Rest & Digest"
Autonomic Nervous System Regulates activities that are automatic of involuntary. Maintains functioning of many organs
Sensory Division Affrent -Transmits impulses to the CNS
Motor Division Efferent - Tansmits impulses from CNS to muscles or glands.
Peripheral Nervous System The nervous system outside the brain & spinal cord.
Division of PNS (A) Sensory Division - Afferent (B) Motor Division - Efferent
Limbic system functions are: feeding, agression, emotions, endocrine aspect of sexual response
Basal ganglia masses of gray matter deep withinh the cerebral hemispheres
Epithalamus Habenular nuclei: integrate olfactory, visual and somatic afferent pathways; Pineal glang: secrets hormones that inluence the oituitary gland and several other organs
Brainstem: midbrain -mesencephalon, pons, and modulla oblongata
Medulla oblongata center for vitual functions: cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers
cerebellum: archicerebellum, paleocerebellum ( spinocerebelum), neocerebellum (panthocerebellum)
archicerebellum concerned with equilibrum, regulation of muscle tone, cordinates VO reflex
paleocerebellum ( spinocerebelum) receives imput from proprioceptive pathways and is concered with modyfing muscle tone nd synergistic actions of muscles, important in maintance of posture
neocerebellum (panthocerebellum) smooth coordination of voluntary movements, important for motor learning, sequencing of movements and visualy trigered movements
Created by: mmason



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