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Lymph & Immune Syst.

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
lymph The fluid that removes cellular waste products, pathogens, & dead blood cells from the tissues
lymphatic vessels & ducts returns lymph from the tissue to the circulatory system
lymph nodes filter pathogens & harmful substances from the lymph
tonsils & adenoids protect the entry into the respiratory system
spleen filters foreign materials from the blood. Maintains the appropriate balance between cells & plasma in the blood. Destroys worn-out blood cells, releases hemoglobin, acts as a blood reservoir, & stores platelets
bone marrow produces blood cells
lymphocytes the specialized white blood cells that play an important role in immune reactions
thymus secretes the endocrine thymosin that aids in the maturation of T lymphocytes for use by the immune system
immune system defends the body against harmful substances, such as pathogenic microorganisms, allergens, toxins, & malignant cells
The 3 primary functions of the lymphatic system are: absorbing fats & fat-soluable vitamins from the small intestine, removing waste from tissues, providing aid to the immune system
lacteals are specialized structures of the lymphatic system that line the small intestine
Lacteals do what? fats & fat-soluable vitamins that cannot be absorbed directly into the bloodstream are absorbed & transported
Structures of the Lymphatic System include: lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen & thymus
lymphocytes are specialized white blood cells
lymph is a clear, watery fluid that transports waste products & proteins out of the spaces between the cells of the body tissues. It also destroys bacteria or other pathogens that are present in the tissues
interstitial fluid AKA intercellular or tissue fluid, is plasma from arterial blood that flows out of the capillaries & into the spaces between the cells.
Interstitial Fluid does what? transports food, oxygen, & hormones to the cells
reabsorbed means to be taken up again by the body
What percentage of Interstitial fluid is reabsorbed by the capillaries? 90%...then it's returned to the venous circulation
What happens to the other 10%? becomes lymph. It is transported by the lymphatic vessels & is filtered by lymph nodes located along these vessels
lymphatic capillaries are microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body
Lymphatic capillaries do what? separate briefly to allow lymph to enter the capillary, & the action of the cells as they close forces the lymph to flow forward
Lymph flows from... the lymphatic capillaries into the progressively larger lymphatic vessels
Where are the lymphatic vessels located? deeper within the tissues. Like veins, lymphatic vessels have valves to prevent the backward flow of lymph
right lymphatic duct collects lymph from the right side of the head & neck, the upper right quadrant of the body & the right arm. It empties into the right subclavian vein
thoracic duct the largest lymphatic vessel in the body, collect lymph from the left side of the head & neck, the upper left quadrant of the trunk, the left arm & the entire lower portion of the trunk & both legs.
The thoracic duct empties where? into the left subclavian vein
lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped
Unfiltered lymph nodes flows: into the nodes, & here the lymphocytes destroy harmful substances such as bacteria, viruses & malignant cells & filter the lymph to remove additional impurities.
After these process are complete, the lymph: leaves the node & continues its journey to again become part of the venous circulation
tonsils are 3 masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose & the upper throat
adenoids AKA the nasopharyngeal tonsils, are located in the nasopharynx
palatine tonsils are located on the left & right sides of the throat in the area that is visible through the mouth
palatine means referring to the hard & soft palates
lingual tonsils are located at the base of the tongue
lingual means pertaining to the tongue
thymus is located superior to the heart; although it's composed largely of lymphoid tissue, it is an endocrine gland that assists the immune system
peyer's patches are located on the walls of the ileum
ileum is last section of the small intestine
The Vermiform Appendix & Peyer's Patches protect against the entry of invaders through the digestive system
spleen is a saclike mass of lymphoid tissue located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen
The spleen: filters microorganisms & other foreign material from the blood
The spleen also: forms lymphocytes & monocytes, which are specialized white blood cells with roles in the immune system
hemolytic function of destroying worn-out red blood cells & releasing their hemoglobin for reuse
The spleen also stores: extra erythrocytes & maintains the appropriate balance between these cells & the plasma of the blood
When does the thymus reach maximum development? during puberty & gradually gets smaller
The primary function of the immune system: is to maintain good health & to protect the body from harmful substances
pathogens which are disease-producing microorganisms
allergens which are substances that produce allergic reactions
toxins which are poisonous or harmful substances
intact skin wraps the body in a physical barrier that prevents invading organisms from entering the body
intact means there are no cuts, scrapes, open sores or breaks in the skin
respiratory system traps breathed-in foreign matter with nose hairs & the moist mucous membrane lining of the respiratory system
digestive system uses the acids & enzymes produced by the stomach to destroy invaders that are swallowed or consumed with food
The structures of the lymphatic system: & specialized white blood cells, work together in specific ways to attack & destroy pathogens that have succeeded in entering the body
antigen-antibody reaction AKA the immune reaction, involves binding antigens to antibodies
antigen is any substance that the body regards are being foreign, & includes viruses, bacteria, toxins & transplanted tissues
antibody is a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen
immunoglobulins bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response; secreted by plasma cells, are AKA antibodies
lymphocytes are white blood cells that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells
lymph/o lymph
-cytes cells
maturation means the process of becoming mature
differentiation means to be modified to perform a specific function
B cells AKA B lymphocytes that produce & secrete antibodies
B cells are most effective against: viruses & bacteria circulating in the blood
T cells AKA T lymphocytes, are small lymphocytes that mature in the thymus as a result of exposure to the hormone thymosin
interferon is a family of proteins produced by the T cells whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication
lymphokines which are produced by the T cells, direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system
macrophage is a type of white blood cell that surrounds & kills invading cells
thymosin hormone
macro large
-phage a cell that eats
phagocyte is a large white blood cell that can destroy substances such as cell debris, dust, pollen & pathogens by the process of phagocytosis
complement is a group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form & are activated by contact with nonspecific antigens such as foreign blood cells or bacteria. Then mark foreign invaders & attracts phagocytes to destroy them.
immunity is the state of being resistant to a specific disease
natural immunity is passed from the mother to her fetus before birth
passive immunity is passed from the mother to her child after birth through breast milk
acquired immunity AKA active immunity, is the production of antibodies against a specific antigen by the immune system either by contracting an infectious disease such as chickenpox
artificial immunity given through immunizations
general health: if the immune system is compromised by this, it cannot be fully effective
age: older individuals usually have more acquired immunity; however, their immune systems tend to respond less quickly & effectively to new challenges
heredity: genes & genetic disorders affect the individual's general health & the functioning of his or her immune system.
opportunistic infection is caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans
pathogen is a microorganism that causes a disease in humans
microorganism is a living organism that is so small it can be seen only with the aid of a microscope
bacteria are one-celled microscopic organisms; form groups
bacilli are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria that cause tetanus
rickettsia is a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks & mites
What disease is caused by rickettsia? Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
spirochetes are spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls & are capable of movement
What disease is caused by spirochetes? lyme disease
staphylococci are a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes
What condition does staphylococci cause? food poisoning
staphylococcus aureus AKA staph aureus, is a form of staphylococci that commonly infects wounds & causes serious problems such as toxic shock syndrome or produces food poisoning; difficult to get rid of
streptococci are bacteria that form a chain
What condition does streptococci cause? strep throat
fungus is a simple parasitic organism
yeast is a type of fungus, formerly known as moniliasis, is now also known as a yeast infection or thrush
lesion pathologic change of tissue due to disease or injury
parasite is a plant or animal that lives on, or within, another living organism at the expense of that organism; ex. malaria
viruses are very small infectious agents that live only by invading other cells
Created by: Karebear