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Cystoscopy Using an endoscope to examine the urinary bladder
Creatinine Clearance A measure of kidney function that compares the quality of creatinine excreted in the urine over a 24 hour period to the concentration of creatinine in the blood.
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) A blood test used as an indicator of kidney function. It measures the quality of urea which is a waste product of protein metabolism.
Intravenous Pyelogram A contrast x-ray showing the structures that carry urine.
Myopathy A disease of muscle tissue.
Neuropathy A disease of nervous tissue.
Cholelithiasis The presence of stones within the gall bladder or bilary ducts.
Diverticulosis The presence of diverticula within the intestine.
Diverticulitis A pouch or sac that develops off of a tubular structure such as the intestine.
Esophageal Ulcer A lesion in the mucosal lining of the stomach.
Duodenal Ulcer A leasion in the mucosal lining of the duodenum.
Peptic Ulcer A lesion caused by pepsin.
Ulcer A lesion through the skin or a mucous membrane.
Bullae A group of over-inflater alveoli.
Pneumothorax The presence of air between the visceral pleura and the parital pleura.
Atelectasis A partial of complete collapse of lung tissue.
Respiratory Acidosis A deacrease in the pH of body fluids as a result of a build up of carbon dioxide.
Hypercapnea An excess of carbon dioxide.
Hypoxia A lack of oxygen.
Aneurysm Localized dilation of an artery or chamber of the heart as a result of a weakness in the wall.
Hemoptysis Coughing up blood from the lungs.
Primary (essential) Hypertension Chronic high blood pressure of unknown origin.
Secondary Infarction Chronic high blood pressure that is a complication of another conition.
Cerebral Infarction Ischemic necrosis of the cerebrum. CVA (cerebrovascular accident) or stroke
TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack) A tempory decrease in cerebral function as a result of ischemia. Can effect sensory integrative, or motor functions, usually lasting less than 48 hours.
Myocardial Infarction Ischemic necrosis of heart muscle. Commonly called a heart attack.
Angina Pectoris Chest pains as a result of myocardial ischemia.
Ischemia A local decrease in blood flow due to obstruction.
Arteriosclerosis Hardening of the arteries.
Atherosclerosis The build up of fatty deposits (plaque)within the blood vessels.
Valvular Prolapse When one of the AV (atrioventricular) valves swings open into the atrium when it should be closed.
Valvular Stenosis The inability of a valve to open completely.
Valvular Incompetance Inability of a valve to either open or close properly.
Tachycardia A resting heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute
Bradycardia Having a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute.
Normal Sinus Rhythm Having a normal heart rhythm established by the (SA) sinoatrial node.
Cardiac Markers Proteins released from damaged cardiac tissue into the bloood, used as a diagnostic indicator of myocardial infarction.
Angiography A contrast x-ray showing circulation.
Stress Test An electrocardiogram performed while heart rate is elevated.
Echocardiography An ultrasound of the heart.
Auscultation Any diagnostic procedure that listens to body sounds. Heart, lungs, and bowels.
Extrinsic Factor GENERAL - Any factor coming from outside the body. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA - B-12 (cyanocobalamine)
Intrinsic Factor GENERAL - Ant factor from within the body. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA - A protein secreted by the gastric glands needed for the absorption of B-12.
Thalassemia A group of genetic anemias resulting in a decrease in the synthesis od globin chains.
Hemophilia A genetic disease in the activity of one of the clotting factors.
Thrombocytopenia Having a low number of platelets.
Leukopenia A decrease in the number of white blood cells.
Erythrocytopenia A decrease in the number of red blood cells.
Pancytopenia A decrease in the number of all normal blood cells.
Polycythemia Having an abnormally high number of erythrocytes. (also called erythrocytosis)
Leukemias A group of diseases that results in a dramatic increase in the number of leukoblasts.
Anemias A group of diseases that decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Mean Corpuscular Volume The average size of a red blood cell. Lab value 86-98 mcm3
Hematocrit The percentage by volume occupied by red blood cells. Lab value 36% to 54%
Trisomy Having an extra copy of a chromosome.
Monosomy Missing a chromosome from a pair. (A female with one X chromosome is X monosomy.
Aneuploid Having an abnormal number of chromosomes.
Diploid Having the normal 23 chromosomes.
Karyotype Describes the microscopic appearance of the chromosomes.
Sex-linked A gene that resides on one of the sex chromosomes (chromosomal pair 23)
Sex Chromosomes The 23rd of chromosomes.
Autosomal Pertaining to a chhromosome that is not a sex chromosome (chromosome pairs 1 through 22)
Autosomes Chromosome pairs 1 through 22
Chromosomes The combination of DNA and proteins found in a cell that is going through mitosis. Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes which are visible under a standard light microscope.
Phenotype Describes what characteristics are produced as a result of having a certain genotype. Tall, short, blue eyes etc.
Expressed The allele that we can see evidence of. (eye color blue or brown allele expressed)
Heterozygous Having different alleles for a gene. (Aa)
Homozygous Having the same two alleles for a gene. (AA,aa)
Genotype A two letter code that describes which alleles a person has. The genetic makeup of a cell or person. (AA, Aa, and aa).
Recessive An Allele that will be expressed only when the person is homozygous. It is hidden or partially hidden in the presence of a dominant allele.
Dominant An allele that is always expressed.
Alleles Different forms of a gene 2 types dominant/recessive receive one from each parent. Gene that determines veye color may have the brown or blue allele.
Gene The region on DNA that contains the "code" for making one protein.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) The nucleic acid that contains all of an individuals genes. Found in the nucleus of every cell. Different cells are different even though they contain the same DNA they use different genes.
Ultrasound A recording of differences in the rate of return and intensity of sound waves reflected off of objects within the body.
X-rays A visual recording of differences in radiodensity of anatomical structures.
Inflammation A protective response to the injury or infection to tissue that increases blood flow to the affected area as a result of a large number of chemical mediators of inflammation.
Acute Stage The time during an infection when clinical signs and symptoms begin to develop.
Metaplasia A change in tissue structure.
Immunotolerence The immune systems ability to recognize and not attack normally occuring tissues within the body.
Exudate Excess fluid that accumulates at the site of the inflammation. The fluid contains a high level of proteins and neutrophils when compared to normal fluid.
Carcinogenesis The process of developing a malignant neoplasm.
Initiators Carcinogens that increase the rate of cancer cell production by activating oncogenes.
Promoters Carcinogins that decrease the body's ability to find and fight cancer cells by damaging tumor suppressing genes.
Anaphylaxis A severe systemic allergic response that is characterized by vasodilation (severe drop in blood pressure) and bronchoconstriction (difficulty breathing).
Pathology The study of changes in cell or tissue structure related to disease and death.
Complication New secondary or additional problems that arise after the original disease begins.
Sequela A consequence of a previous disease.
Prognosis A prediction of the likely outcome or consequences of having a disease.
Suppurative Inflammation A response to an injury or infection that leads to the production of pus.
Sarcoma A malignancy that originates in the connective tissue.
Glioma A malignancy that originates within the tissue of the central nervous tissue.
Carcinoma A malignancy that originates in epithelial tissues.
Contrast X-rays X-rays that use a contrast media to increase the radiodensity of fluid filled structures to produce an image.
Keloid Scarring The over production of scar tissue that results in a mass of scar tissue.
Regeneration The replacing of damaged with normal tissue through the process of mitosis.
Repair Replacing damaged tissue scar tissue.
Adhesions Scar tissue forming an abnormal bond between two structures.
Sclerosis The process of hardening. Can occur as a result of scar formation ot the accumulation of deposits known as plaque.
Spirometry Any procedure used to measure a persons ability to move air or the capabilities of the respiratory system.
Stenosis The narrowing of any canal or opening, such as the intestine a blood vessel, or a heart valve.
Necrosis Tissue death or destruction.
Pathogenesis The events that lead to the development of a disease and the signs and symptoms that occur as the disease progresses.
Hyperplasia The increse rate of mitosis.
Pathophysiology The study of how a disease affects body function.
Health The ability to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions.
Disease Unable to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions.
Genetic A disease, condition, or trait that is inherited as a result of a single gene.
Acquired A disease, condition or trait that developed because of exposure to something during your life.
Idiopathic Without a clearly identified cause.
Signs Evidence of a disease that can be objective and can be seen, measured and recorded.
Acute A disease that devlops and resolves rapidly.
Chronic A disease that develops gadually and lasts up to 3 months or longer.
Systemic A condition that affects the entire body.
Local A condition that is confined to one area.
EKG or ECG (Electrocardiogram) A recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac conduction system.
Chemotherapy The use of chemicals to kill cells within the body.
Pharmacological The use of drugs to treat disease.
Terminal A disease likely to cause death.
Hypertrophy To increase in size.
Atrophy To decrease in size.
Defeciency Lacking in something that is essential.
Pyrogens Chemicals that lead to fever.
Serous Exudates A thin clear watery fluid that acculmulates at the site of inflammation.
Purulent Exudate A thick creamy white or yellow fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation (pus).
EEG (Electoencephalogram) A recording of the electrical activity of the brain, most often recording the cerebral cortex.
Radiodensity The ability of an object to stop or slow radiation.
Etiology The study of the cause of a disease.
Congenital A disease, trait, or condition present at birth.
Symptoms Evidence of a disease that is subjective and cannot be seen, measured or recorded.
Trauma The transfer of a harmful amount of energy. The energy maybe mechanical, electrical, radiation, or thermal.
Palliative Any form of treatment that relieves signs and symptoms without curing a disease.
Dysplasia Irregular tissue structure, often considered a potentially cancerous change.
Tumor Markers Proteins produced by tumor cells that can be detected in screening tests of the person's blood.
Angiogenesis The development of new blood vessels, especially capillaries.
Prodromal Stage Early stage of a disease when you feel like you are coming down with something.
Neoplasia Growth of tissue into new areas, resulting in a tumor. May be benign or malignant.
Incubation The develoment of an infection from the time of exposure to the infectious agent until signs and symptoms appear.
Benign A nonmalignant neoplasm
Malignant A cancerous neoplasm.
Endoscopy A procedure that utilizes a fiber optic camera to view structures inside of the body.
Remission The lessening in severity of a disease or any of its signs or symptoms.
Exacerbation An increase in the severity of a disease or any its signs or symptoms.
Contracture The shortening of scar tissue over time or the shortening of muscle tissue as a result of fibrotic changes.
Leukocytosis An above normal number of lekocytes in the blood.
Intoxication Being exposed to a toxic level of something.
Immunosurveillance The immune system constant search for an antigen.
Created by: mijaws
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