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WH Ancient Greece

BGHS 9th grade in Savoia's class

Mycenaeans Indo europeans who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 BC
Trojan War Thought to be completely fictional, fought around 1200 BC, in which an army led by Myncenaean kings attacked the independent trade city of Troy in Anatolia
Dorians a Greek speaking people that, according to tradition, migrated into the mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization
Homer The greatest story teller, according to Greek tradition. The Trojan Wars were the backdrop for his two great epics "the Iliad" and "The Odyssey"
Epics Long narrative poems celebrating the deeds of legendary or traditional heroes
Myths Traditional stories about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society
Polis a Greek city-state; the fundamental political unit of ancient Greece after about 750 BC
Acropolis a fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
Monarchy a government in which power is in the hands of a king or queen
aristocracy a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
oligarchy a government in which power is in the hands of a few people- esp. one in which rule is based on wealth
phalanx a military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields
tyrants in ancient Greece, a powerful individual who gained control of a city-state's government by appealing the poor for support
helots in the society of ancient Sparta, a peasant bound to the land
Democracy a government controlled by it's citizens, either directly or through representatives
the Persian Wars a series of wars in the fifth century BC, in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empire
Direct Democracy a democracy in which the citizens rule directly rather than through representatives
classical art the art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and balance were emphasized
tragedy a serious form of drama dealing with the downfall of a heroic or noble character
comedy a humorous form of drama that often includes slapstick an satire
peloponnesian war a war, lasting from 431 to 404 BC in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies
Philosophers thinkers who use logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society, and morality
Socrates he believed that absolute standards did not exist for truth and justice. He encouraged Greeks to go further and question themselves and their moral character
Plato in his most famous work, "The Republic", he sets forth his vision of a perfectly governed society. In this society, people would fall into three groups: farmers and artisans, warriors, and the ruling class
Aristotle He questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge. He invented a method for arguing according to rules of logic, which he later applied to problems in the fields of science, physics, and biology
Macedonia an ancient kingdom north of Greece, whose ruler Philip II conquered Greece in 338 BC
Demosthenes an Athenian orator who tried to warn the Greeks of the threat Philip and his army posed. He urged them to unite against him
Alexander the Great Philip's son immediately proclaimed himself king of Macedonia after Philip's death
Darius III The persian king who vowed to crush the Macedonians, he raised a huge army of between 50,000-75,000 men to face the Macedonians near Issus
Hellenistic Relates to the civilization, language, art, science, and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to the late second century BC
Alexandria An African city that became the foremost center of commerce and hellenistic civilization
Euclid A highly regarded mathematician who opened a school of geometry in Alexandria. His best known book, "The Elements", contained 465 carefully presented geometry propositions and proofs
Archimedes an important Hellenistic scientist that studied in Alexandria. He accurately estimated the value of pi-the circumference of a circle to its diameter. He also explained the law of the lever and invented the compound pulley to lift heavy objects
Colossus of Rhodes an enormous Hellenistic statue that formally stood near the harbor of Rhodes
Pericles statesman who tried to unite the country under leadership of Athens, also promoting democracy in Athens. His rule is known as the "Golden Age of Greece"
Created by: baladucci