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Key terms in Chapter 9 of text by HJ Blij/Alexander Murphy

sound shifts analysis in which the diversification of language has long been charted through.
deep reconstruction The notion to recreate the language that preceded another particular language.
William Jones discovered the vocabulary and grammatical forms of the Sanskrit language bore a resemblance to ancient Greek and Latin.
Jacob Grimm suggested that sound shifts might prove the relationships between languages in a scientific manner.
(Proto) Indo-European a closely related group of languages
August Schleicher German linguist that was the first scholar to compare the world language families to the branches of a tree.
Language Divergence the differentiation of language over time and space.
language convergence the similarities of languages regardless of time and space
language replacement When languages of "lesser" peoples has been replaced, or greatly modified, by the languages of the invaders.
Conquest Theory The Proto-Indo-European language family was spread through the conquest of neighboring states, and as they were conquered they adopted the conquering state's language.
Agriculture Theory The spread of agriculture diffused the Proto-Indo-European language through Europe; proposed by Luca Cavilla-Sforza and Robert Ammerman
Vladislav Illich-Syilych and Aharan Dolgopolsky Individually attempted to reconstruct the language that was ancestral to Proto-Indo-European language.
Nostratic Named by Vladislav Illich-Syilych and Aharan Dolgopolsky as the ancestral language to Proto-Indo-European.
Austroresian arose from the Austro-Tai language family.
Malayo-Polynesian A dialect of Austroresian and became a forerunner of a large number of language
Fijian A discrete Malayo-Polynesian offshoot.
Polynesian Derivative of Malayo-Polynesian and is spoken by the Maori people of New Zealand
The Greenberg Hypothesis Proposed by Joseph Greenberg that there are three families of indigenous American languages and each correspond to migration flows into the Western Hemisphere.
Created by: achrodes