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med term

chabner, 8th edition, chapter 10 nerous system

acetylcholine nuerotransmitter chemical released at the end of nerve cell
afferent nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord(sensory nerve)
arachniod membrane middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
astrocyte type of glial(neuroglial)cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
autonomic nervous system nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
axon microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
blood-brain barrier blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out
brainstem lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata
cauda equina collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
cell body part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
central nervous system brain and the spinal cord
cerebellum posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
cerebral cortex outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates throughout the brain and the spinal cord
cerebrum largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory
cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)
dendrite microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
dura mater thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
efferent nerve carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
ependymal cell glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
ganglion( plural: ganglia) collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
glial cell (neroglial cell) supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses
gyrus (plural: gyri) sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
hypothalamus portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
medulla oblongata part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here
meninges three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
microglial cell phagoytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
motor nerve carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve
myelin sheath covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons
nerve macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
neuron nerve cell that carry impulses throughout the body
neurotransmitter chemical messenger released at the end of the nerve cell. it stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or glad cell
oligodendrogial cell glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axans. AKA oligodendocyte
parasympathetic cell involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract
parenchyma essential,distinguishing tissue of an organ or system. parenchyma of the nervous system includes the brain,spinal cord, and neurons.parenchymal cells of liver are hypatocytes, and parenchymal tissue of kidney inclues the nephrones,where urine is formed
peripheral nervous system nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves
pia mater thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
plexus (plural: plexuses) large, interlacing network of nerves
pons part of the brian anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. it is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain
receptor organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. ei. skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds
sciatic nerve nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve
sensory nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve
spinal nerve 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
stimulus (plural: stimuli) agent of change (light, sound, touch)in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
stroma connective and supporting tissue of an organ. glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain
sulcus (plural: sulci) depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex;fissure
sympathetic nerves autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
synapse space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells
thalamus main relay center of the brain. it coducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum
vagus nerve 10th cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach
ventricles of the brain canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
Created by: lgibbs