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WHAP Notes

Chapters 1 through 10 review

Describe Paleolithic Society Hunting and gathering must follow what they stalk, move with the seasons Community size-small bands
Paleolithic Social organization Gender and social organization hunter-gatherers had to move all the time; no accumulated wealth
Wealth in agricultural social organization land
Difference between Neolithic villages and cities Cities were larger and more complex Specialization; professionals emerged Villages served the needs of their inhabitants and immediate neighbors Cities influenced the political, economic, and cultural life of larger regions.
1st complex society developed where? Southern Mesopotamia
Besides Lex Talionis, Hammurabi's Code based on... Social standing Rich over poor Lex Talionis - law of relation
What happened to Harappan deities? Intermingled with Aryans Carried on into Hindu
Why did Harappan society collapse? Ecological disintegration Deforested Indus Valley Reduced rainfall Became desert Flooding of Indus, earthquakes
What is Varna? Sanskirt for "color" Used to refer to major social classes
Pair early societies to Rivers: Mesopotamia Tigris/Euphrates
Pair early societies to Rivers: Egypt Nile
Pair early societies to Rivers: Harappa Indus
Pair early societies to Rivers: China Yellow
Shang control of bronze Elites didn't allow free production of bronze Expensive Controlled access to copper and tin ores Competitors had small hope of resisting Army easily controlled agricultural villages
Madate of heaven Theory of politics that heavenly events related to earthly affairs Granted the right to govern - "mandate to heaven" Power given to "son of heaven": link between heaven and earth
Zhou political organization Split into 3 sections Give command to ally In exchange for favors Decentralized Feudalism
Cause for Zhou collapse Subordinates didn't agree with main ruler Iron was cheaper, any one could build an army
1st Meso-American civilization Olmecs Known for big basalt heads
Purpose of Maya terraces poorly drained Meso-american lowlands Tropical soils quickly lost fertility To enhance agricultural potential Built terraces; trap silt carried by rivers
Relation between native Austro. and New Guineans Common ancestor New Guineans farmed: learned from Austronesia
Eyes and ears of the king Imperial spies
Persian government style Absorb them Let them keep their customs and cultures As long as they didn't rebel Tolerance of diversity
Final defeat of Persia Alexander the Great Persepolis Achaemenid empire crumbled Seleucid, Parthian, Sansid
Zoroastrian influence Ahura Mazda Priests - magi Angra Mainyu - evil Aristocrats and elites Darius
Describe Confucianism Moral, ethical, and political Not religious or philisophical Ren - attitude of kindness Li - propriety, behaving appropriately Xiao - filial piety, significance of family
Confucianism v. Daoism Daoism = spiritual withdraw from the world, to seek nature Confucianism = not spiritual encourages poliical participation
Legalism: strengths of the state Legalist philosophy strength of state was military and agriculture
Invasion of _________ brought new techniques Persians bureaucratic govt govt techniques
Gupta govt style Arthrashatra handbook Spies and prostitutes as informants Bureaucratic
Monsoon effect on trade Macedon - extensive trade networks
Bhagavad Gita Hindu holy book Song of the Lord Lord: Krishna Prince Arjuna - caste - much obligation
Greek political organization Polis; city-state Generals, tyrants, small monarchies Sparta: all citizens equal in status Athens: democratic principles
Plato's Republic Sketched ideal state that reflected his philosophical views Best state was where philosophers ruled as kings or kings were philosophers Advocated intellectual aristocracy Socrates disciple: presented thoughts in dialogue
Greeks attempted to base philosophy on... Pleasure
Philosophy that taught pleasure was good Hellenist Epicurean Market Pleasure of food, social If everyone seeks pleasure won’t seek power Shield from pressures of world
Roman social tensions Plebeians and Patricians Patricians gave Plebeians tribunes (base of political participation broadened Gracchi Bros-wanted to promote reform Marius- army of dedicated rural residents Sulla- aristocratic general
Roman governing style similar to... Greeks
Pax Romona Roman peace Augustus reign brought peace to Rome and the Empire Ended civil disturbances Facilitated trade and communication of ideas for Mesopotamia to Atlantic
Slaves _______% of Roman population 30
Biggest pyramids built during... 1st millenium of Egyptian history (Old Kingdom)
Amon-Re Amon - sky god Re - sun god tendency to combine gods in Egypt
Created by: punisher42