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AP History Unit 2

AP History Notes-Unit 2 600 C.E. - 1450

What is the holy place of Islam? Mecca
Mecca is used for what? Trading crossroads
What is the Ka'aba? Large holy building that has fallen from Heaven and has special powers
Who is Muhammad? Muslim Prophet who preached mootheism in Mecca
What does Islam mean? "Submit" to God's will
What are the Five duties "PILLARS" of Islam? Faith, Prayer, Fasting, Alms, Hajj
What is the Hajj? The pilgrimage to Mecca if able
What do Muslims call God? Allah
What does a Muslim caliph resemble in Christianity? The Pope
What are the two divisions of Islam? Shia and Sunni
What is the Shia? The family members of Muhammmad- descendants of Ali
What is the Sunni? Chosen from the Umma-Muslim community
What is a government run by religon? Theocratic
The caliph is: The emperor, pope, AND chief justice
Who became the caliph after Muhammad? Abu Bakr
What is a jihad? Conquering region for religon and covert
Were there colleges? There were instituions of higher learning. (Yes.)
What was the Muslim key, significant role in preserving Western culture? The learning of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Persians was preserved by the Muslims. They translated the writings of Plato and Aristotle to Arabic
What peninsula was important? The Iberian Peninsula
Was education in Muslim schools free? Yes
Why were people taxed? They were taxed if they were NOT Muslims
What are suffis? Islamic mystics
Who do Muslims have respect for? Christians and Jews "The People of the Book"
What changed negative treatment towards women? The Qur'an
What was forbidden? Infanticide (Killing babies)
Muhammad's wife Khadija was what? SHE was his boss and businesswoman
Before Islam women were: Viewed as property
After Islam, women were: Treated better. Man should have one wife (But Up to four wives if he can provide for them.)
What is a umayyad? A group of people
Who are the "PEOPLE OF THE BOOK?" Christians, Jews, and Muslims
What is Sharia? A model for your life if you are a Muslim
What is a big deal for the Islamic Empire? Science
What did the Islamic empire establish? Zero is a place value
What improvements in medicine? Optic (Eye) surgery
What improvements in navigation? Cartographers most detailed maps in the world
What is an astrolabe? Measured distnace to star in order to find your location. Used by Muslims to navigate
In what way did the Muslims interact with people? By trade
What is the first alliance for trade? Hanseatic League
What is Ghana called? "land of gold"
Europe mints what? Gold coins
What happens when the Mail king, Mansa Musa converted to Islam? Many of his people also converted with him
What was Timbuktu? A cultural center for Muslims (like Paris or NY city)
What is another name for the Indian Ocean Trade? Sea Roads
What happened when sailors married local women on their routes? Cultures mixed
What are Chinese Junks? Huge boats
What did the Silk Routes connect? China to Mediterranean
What kind of Christianity remained in Africa, Ethiopia, and Egypt? Coptic Christianity
Pope encouraged what? Military expeditions to reclaim holy land
Where is the Holy Land? Jerusalem
Who controlled the largest land empire? Genghis Khan
What is a system where leaders are chosen for ability instead of family relations? A Meritocracy
What are flanking maneuvers? Comeing around and going from behind
What is a horde? A herd of people
What conquered Russia? The Golden Horde
What is the largest single empire in human history? The Mongol empire
The Mongol empire did what when approaching a city? They promised to spare the inhabitants. But, if the inhabitants disagreed, they'd murder every human and animal
The Mongols used what from China? Paper currency
What is the yam? Pony Express- The postal sysem of the Mongols
Who is Genghis Khan's son? Ogodei
What is the code of honor of the Mongols? Batu
Why did the Mongols not conquer Japan? Violent Storms (Japan thinks the Gods saved them by producing storms)
Mongols conquer China and call their dynasty what? Yuan
Mongols and Chinese were: Segregated
What does Pax Mongolica? Peace in Mongolia
What does conduit mean? A conductor for cultural excange
What is the biggest impact of the Mongols? A conduit (conductor) or cultural exchange
Kubia Khan would not allow what? Would not allow Chinese to learn Mongol language
China was not allowed to Mongolize and what important thing happened? China kept their own culture
What religon is encouraged aggresively in the Sui kingdom? Buddhism
When do the Mongols take over China? During the Yuan Dynasty
What is a gentry? Smart old people
What is a meritocracy? Based on how good you are is how the government rules
Countries must do what before they can trade with China? They mush show China is the best place
Tang/Song Dynasty had what two things? Paper Money, Flying money (Credit)
Tang/Song invented what? Gunpowder for military (There was no gun yet though)
What is block printing? Carve out letters on wood. Dip wood in ink.
What was a major trading port in China? Port of Canton
Tang/Song rivaled what? British iron production during the Industrial Revolution.
Rice from Vietnam? Champa rice
Because of Champa rice, what happened? Population increased from 45 to 115 million
What was most significant in the Tang Dynasty? Poetry
What was most significant in the Song Dynasty? Printing process that expanded literacy
Who was the first impress of China? Wu Zhao
Wu Zhao was : Ruthless to adversaries and compassionate to peasants
Song had what? foot binding
Song marriages were set up to benefit who? The Groom
Following han, what religon formed? Zorastrians, Islam,a dn Mahayana Buddhism
What is New-confucian thought? Looks at ancient texts from Confucius Reinforced gender and class divisions
Urbanization in song was what? some cities exceeded one billion people
What is kow-tow? You must bow with head on ground and say that China is best
What is geography of Japan? Four main islands and relatively isolated
The Yamato clan is what? Th First and only dynasty to rule Japan. (The emperor today is still part of the Yamato.)
What is kow-tow? You must bow with head on ground and say that China is best
What is geography of Japan? Four main islands and relatively isolated
The Yamato clan is what? Th First and only dynasty to rule Japan. (The emperor today is still part of the Yamato.)
What did Japan take from China? Chinese characters but they did not work with Japanese language
Japan took what from China? Buddhism, Chinese architecturem Confusian literary classics, organization of government, law codes, tax system, calendar, art, literature, music
What did Japan reject from China? Confucianism and Civil service exam
In Japan: Education is NOT as important as birth
Japanese emperor CAN NOT be: Overthrown
Japan had a ____ society? FEUDAL
What does the Shinto religon mean? "way of the gods"
What is kami? Spirits in everything
Yamato claimed descendant from what: Sun goddess
What is the Golden Age in Japan? Fujiwara
Lady Muraski-The Tale of Genji is what? epic about love/court life
"Way of the Warrior" is what? Code of Bushido (Chivalry)
Chivalry is: Loyalty, courage, honor
What si Seppuku- hari kari? Disembowlment (Killing self)
What are the Four Cardinal Virtues? Fidelity (Faithful) ; Virility (Fearlessness) ; Truthfulness ; Simplicity
Samurai was called to protect who periodically? The emperor
Shogunate is what? Loose government under shogun (rich guy)
What is Noh drama? big masks, smooth quiet movements
Vietnam grows what major plant? RICE
Vietnam has a desire to do what? Distinguish themselves as unique
What is Angkor Wat? Some of Vietnam's most extensive temple conplexes
Who is Vishnu? The Hindu God
What role did women play in Vietnam? More privlages
What is self autonomy? Independence ; rely on yourself
Western Rome had what? Estates\manors
Western Rome had: Form of free agricultural labor
The free labor ensured what? A steady food supply
The laborors were NOT slaves and could NOT BE Bought or sold
The laborors in Western Rome could: Could pass on property to heirs
What kind of plow did the Western Romans use? Moldboard plow in 8th century that is able to turn soil
What emerged in West Rome? A middle class -craftsmen/merchants
What is the capital of Eastern Rome? Constantinople
What provided stability in East Byzantine Rome? Coined money
What did the East Byzantine Empire serve as? Crossroads of Europe and Asia
Constantine is a preserver of what? Preserver of Christianty
What renewed economic growth in the East Byzantine? Rise of towns and the use of money instead of barter
Who was the emperor of ALL of Rome? Constantine
Rome split into what? East and West
What is Western Rome? The Holy Roman Empire
What is Eastern Rome? The Byzantine Empire
West Rome is what key word? Popy The Pope is there
East Rome is what key word? Greecy
Why was trade unbalanced? East showed little interest in Western goods
What are bad effects of trade? Christian and Muslimss are hostile towards each other
What were the Muslims all about? Education
What was present in both Christianity and Islam? Anti-Semitism (Anti-Jewish)
What happened when the Vikings became Christians? They settled and stopped killing people
What is feudalism? King has power over his kingdom. Nobles granted land in exchange for service/loyalty.
Nobles divided land among: Vassals
Vassals divided land among: Subordinate vassals
Who worked the subordinate vassals' land? Peasants
What is your staus defined by in Eastern Byzantine? Your birth Lord > Knight > merchant > Artisan > peasant
Peasants could not do what without permission? Leave their land
What reinforced Byzantine women as weak/subordinate? Chivalry
What offered Byzantine women opportunities? Convents
What is the primogeniture? Eldest son gets the land
Women were regarded as what in Byzantine? As property
at was it like in the West Holy Roman Empire? Small feudal kingdoms
How were disputes settled in the West Holy Roman Empire? By battle or Marriages
Who was the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire? Charlemagne
Who is Charles the Great? Charlemagne
Charlemagne established what? Papal (Pope) authority over kings
Istambl was once what city? Constantinople
What does Papal mean? Pope
What country do the Franks get? France
When did the Franks convert to Christianity? During the 5th century
What dynasty is based on Charlemagne? Carolingian Dynasty
Who is the Duke of Normandy? William the Conqueror
In England, who do the vassals owe allegiance to? The monarch
Who did the nobles want to control tax policies of? King John
Who was forced to sign the Magna Carta? King John
What did the Magna Carta do? No taxation without representation; No arbitrary arrest; Guarantee of justice to all; Monarchy not above the law; Entitled nobility to basic rights; Later all social classes recieved basic rights
What was the Great Charter? The Magna Carta
What was the House of Lords in England? The clergy and nobility
What was the House of Commons? Urban elite class
What did Voltaire say about the Holy Roman Empire? It is "Neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
What is the East Byzantine? Greecy
Who fought the Hundred Years War 1337-1453? France Vs. England (France wins)
When did Joan of Arc fight? During the hundred years war
What blended Greek and Roman elements? The East Byzantine Empire
Which side of split Rome had Icons? East Byzantines
What are icons? Painted images of Christian saints, Virgin Mary, and Jesus
Under Justinian (East), what flourished? Trade and arts
What is Hagia Sophia? A Cathedral that later became a Mosque when the Muslims took over Turkey
What was the capital of the West Holy Roman Empire? Rome
Who was Catholic? West Holy Roman Empire
What was the East Byzantine capital of Rome? Constantinople
Who was the Greek/Roman learning maintained by? Muslims in Spain
Universities were built during the High Middle Ages where? West Holy Roman Empire
West had what type of architecture? Gothic (Muslim designs + Western architectural technology
Johan Gutenberg created what? Moveable type and printed the Luter's Bible
What was a key role in Renaissance/Reformation/Scientific Revolution? Gutenberg's moveable type
China create what? Firearms/gunpowder
What is scholastism? Reconcile logic and faith
What are troubadours and minstrels? Traveling musicians
What was the Latin elite language? Language
What is vernacular? Local language
Whose influence were universities originally under? The Church's influence
What kind of architecture was in Byzantine/Middle East? Castle building
What kind of architecture required a higher degree of skill? Cathedrals
What could take a century to build and required a lot of money? Cathedrals
What is the Romanesque style like? Thick walls, small windows, square blocky building
What is the Gothic style like? Tall, slender spires, ornate carvings, large stained-glass
Europe followed an honor code and Japanese Feudalism followed what? Chivalry
What are similarities between European and Japanese feudalism? (Europe always first) Europe- Knights to samurai; Japan- Vassals who served in lord's military force
What are similarities between European and Japanese feudalism? (Europe always first) In contrast to bushido- Chivalry was a two-sided contract between vassal/lord.
What are similarities between European and Japanese feudalism? (Europe always first) Started 800s after division of Holy Roman Empire vs. started in opposition to power of the Fujiwara
What are similarities between European and Japanese feudalism? (Europe always first) Hereditary- length of service Vs. Emperor (Europe) VS. hereditary, but shogan Japan
What are similarities between European and Japanese feudalism? (Europe always first) Large population engaged in agriculture VS. smal agriculture population
What are similarities between European and Japanese feudalism? (Europe always first) Bushido applied to both men and women of samurai class VS. Chivalry only followed by knights
What is bushido? Chialry
In the West, the Pope said that icons are bad. So what happened? Western Catholics destroyed ALL Eastern icons.
What happened in effect of Western Catholics destroying all Eastern Icons? Easterns ex-communicated the Pope. Formed Eastern Orthodox
Why was Eastern Orthodox formed? The Pope ordered all Eastern icons to be destroyed
East and West practiced what differently? Christianity
What is Monasticism? Monasteries
When did Christianity split into Roman Catholicism and Christian Orthodoxy? 1054
What two brances of Christianity formed in 1054? Roman Catholicism (West) and Eastern Orthodox
East Byzantine is what form of Christianity? Eastern Orthodox
What is iconoclasm? Use of icons during worship
How many Holy Sacraments are there? Seven
Why does Papal (Pope) authority expand? Refusal to pay taxes for Church land and people willed land to the Church after death
Politics was LESS____, while religon was MORE ___? Centralized; centralized
What is an edict from the Pope? A message/declaration from the Pope
What was running the government in the West? The Church was over the government
Church serviced in the West were in what language? Latin (Only the Pope knew Latin)
Who was the EARLIEST Meso-American state? The OLMECS
Which Middle American group of people had pyramids and large stone sculptures (Basalt heads) The Olmecs
Who were the first people in the Americas? The Olmecs
Where were the Mayan people? Southern Mexico and Guatamala
List the American civilizations in order from first to last: 1-Olmecs 2-Maya 3-Aztecs 4-Incas
What were the majority of the Maya people? Peasants and slaves
Where were the Aztecs located? Mexico
How were the Aztec women treated? Well. Women who died in childbirth were honored similar to men dying in battle.
Aztec women could inherit: Property and will it to heirs
What Aztec women's talent was honored? weaving
Where were the Inca's located? Peru
How were Incan women viewed? Wives viewed as domestic servants
Incan women had the option of what? A religous life and serving in temples of gods
The Mayans built what? Pyramids like the Egyptians
Chichen Itza was the important city of what American civilization? Mayas
The height of the Mayans is: Very late
The Mayans believed that: God created humans out of maize (corn)
Mayan war = = Mayan religon (war is the same as religon)
When was the Mayan Golden Age? 500 > 850 CE
Mayan calendar was based on what? zero
Who had the jaguar god/feathered serpent and the Sun god? Aztecs
The Aztecs had what? human sacrifice on extremely large scale
Pyramids point to what? Heaven
The Incas built what? Thousands of miles of roads
Incas had temple of what? The Sun and the most important sun god
The Incas had a what High level of civilization without developing alphabet/written language
A quipo was what? Incan financial system (knots on cords/strings)
The Incan Machu Picchu was what? Great temple/fortress complex (where the gods reside)
The Mayans had what? Advanced agricultural techniques
Cotton and maize was widely cultivated by whom? Mayans
What is a chinampa? Twisted vines with soil on top that floated in canals
Who had hieroglyphics? Mayans
What are hieroglyphics? picture writing
Who had terrace farming (staircase fashion)? Incas
What is animal husbandry? breeding
Which animals were used for breeding? llamas, alpacas, vicunas
What were the reasons for the Mayan decline? Disease, drought, internal unrest (fighting), deserted cities
What was the chief city of the Aztecs? Tenochtitlan (Mexico City today)
What are causeways? Waterways
The Incas were part of what? The Andeans Mountains
The Incas major city? Royal court in Cuzco city- Great King Inca
It was punishable by death to do what in the Incan society? To look at the Great king Inca
Cuzco is a: Place (Incas)
Moundbuilders of Norht America are who? Incas
What were earthern mounds? burial places/ceremonial centers
Cahokia in Illinois was the most famous what? Earthen mound
The Aztecs did what to prisoners of war? Sacrificed them
The Mongols brought about what? Facilitation of trade and exchange of products that brought wealth to merchants.
Paper money (Chinese invention) was used in what? Mongolian trade
What does Pax Mongolica mean? Peace Mongols
No one can trade with China on land because the MONGOLS block land, so: Must USE SEA ROUTES (ENCOURAGED EXPLORATION OF THE SEAS AND THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA)
The Mongols help spread what disease? The bubonic plague
How many people die from bubonic plague? 1/3 of Europeans die
Norse means: Northern
Anthropomorphic means: Personification (humanlike qualities)
The Vikings from Northern Europe: were skilled invaders, explorers, traders, colonists
The Vikings: Raided/terrorized coastal communities
Newfoundland was found by: Leif Ericsson
Favorite Viking target to destroy was: Monasteries
Viking settlements known as: Norman "Northmen"
Norman lord, William, invaded England in what year? 1066
Vikings defeated Saxons and established power in: Britain
Over time, the Vikings: Christianized
What centered Vikings worldview? Warriors
What was the Norse (Viking) economy based on? Plunder (taking whatever you want)
What were Viking legal assemblies called? "Tings"
What written language did the Vikings have? "Runic"
Henry II was: Greatest early Norman king in England
Henry II married who? Eleanor of Aquitaine- the previous queen of France
France and England became one while: Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine
Who was forced to sign the Magna Carta? King John
Golden Age of Pericles ???
Created by: princessjonas