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Motor Control, 2010

MoveSci 110

Human motor control Study of how the body moves or is stabilized in space; movement and posture; basis for nearly all of our interactions with the environment and everything that we do
Golgi, Camillo Discovered neuron (accidentally); said all neurons are interconnected (wrong)
Cajal, Santiago y Neuron Doctrine; identified neurons as separate identities
Neuron Doctrine Cajal; identifies neurons as the most functional and structural units of the nervous system
Broca, Paul Broca's area (speech); expressive aphasia
Expressive aphasia Lack of ability to express yourself through speech
Wernicke, Karl Wernicke's area; receptive aphasia
Receptive aphasia Inability to understand spoken words
Fritsch, Gustav and Hitzig, Edward "Motor centers"; contralateral control (left side controls right, etc.); electrically stimulated dogs' brains
Brodmann, Korbinian Cytoarchitechtonics; 53 different functional areas of cerebral cortex based on nerve structure
Sherrington, Sir Charles Father of modern motor control; spinal cord is the "final common pathway"; coined "synapse" and "proprioception"
Simple reaction time test "RT test"; reaction time, from fastest to slowest: kinesthetic, auditory, visual
Kinematic data Received using motion analysis system; position, velocity, acceleration
Infrared corneal reflection (I-RCR) Eye movements
Electromyography (EMG) Balance and posture; measures electric activity of a contracting muscle
Physiological techniques (goal) Determine the relationship between a particular structure or area of the brain and its role in the control of movement
How to record brain activity (humans) fMRI, EEG
How to record brain activity (animals) Intra-Cortical Microstimulation (ICMS)
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI; localizes neural activity by examining regional cerebral blood flow
Electroencephalography EEG; measure electrical activity of brain on scalp; many trials have to be taken and averaged
Intra-Cortical Microstimulation (ICMS) Gain access to brain area of interest, insert electrode into brain to record electrical activity from neurons while animal performs task; used as a guide in brain surgery
2 approaches to determine the relation of a brain area to a control of movement Record brain correlates of movement; stimulate/interfere with brain functions (observe deficits)
How to interfere with brain function (humans) Transcranial magnetic stimulation: over part of brain (messes with brain), looks at temporal and spatial resolution; lesion studies (isolate groups)
How to interfere with brain function (animals) Temporary or permanent lesions
Disadvantages of lesion studies Lesion extent (hard to find exact same); rest of brain adapts (works around handicap)
2 systems necessary for movement Muscular and nervous
Muscular system Creates movement via contraction/relaxation of muscle fibers; "motors"
Nervous system Dictates muscle activity; "controllers"; CNS and PNS; all neurons and glia that are (CNS) or are not (PNS) entirely contained within the brain and/or spinal cord
Organization of the nervous system Hierarchical: cord is "simple" compared to brain
Alphamotors 31; neurons; only way to get a muscle to contract
Nucleus Genetic center of the cell
Dendrites Receive information from other neurons
Cell body "Soma"; sums information from dendrites/other terminals
Axon Transmits information from the cell body
Presynaptic Terminal Attaches to other neurons to relay information
Neurons (classification) Sensory, interneurons, motor
Sensory neurons Deliver info to CNS from endings on the surface of the body and within muscles and tendons; give info about the body relative to environment; afferent
Afferent Carrying information TO the CNS; sensory information
Interneurons Bulk of CNS; perform processing functions (memory, planning, etc.); connect multiple neurons with (multiple) other neurons
(Alpha) Motor neurons Neurons connected to muscle cells which cause muscle contractions; necessary to perform any voluntary movement; efferent
Efferent Carrying info AWAY FROM the CNS
Glial cells 6; "glue"; insulate, support, and nourish neighboring neurons; outnumber neurons 10:1
Key glial cells Oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells
Myelin Fatty substance wrapped around neuron (insulates); covers the axons of neurons; speed up transmission of neural impulses
Action potentials (AP) Electrical signals carried by neurons and muscle fibers; created by shift in membrane ions (K+, Na+) and is therefore measured as a change in voltage
4 steps of neuromuscular communication Resting membrane potential, depolarization, repolarization/hyperpolarization, restoration of RMP
Resting membrane potential Ion concentrations are stable, with the net charge ~ -70mV
Depolarization Ions (Na+) move inside the cell, making the voltage more positive. When the net charge reaches threshold (~ -55mV), an AP is imminent
Threshold (AP) ~ -55mV
"All or none" (AP) Need threshold: more (same reaction as threshold) or less (nothing will happen)
Repolarization/hyperpolarization Ions shift back towards resting potential (-70mV) via K+ channels, but overcompensate by spamming cell membrane (greater than -70mV)
Restoration of RMP Membrane slowly return to baseline level of -70mV
"Action potentials are propagated down the axon." The part of the axon behind part A is preparing to do what A just finished
Principle of Dynamic Polarization Cajal; one-way flow of AP
Cell-to-cell communication occurs via... Synapses
Cell-to-cell communication AP depolarizes the axon terminal, opening voltage-gated Ca2+ channels for Ca2+ to enter the cell, triggering exocytosis of synaptic vesicle contents. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft to bind with receptors on the postsynaptic cell.
Acetylcholine (ACh) Is released to bind to receptor on muscle membrane; results in electrical stimulation of muscle (makes it contract)
Neuromuscular junction problems Botulism (prevent ACh exocytosis); curare (blocks ACh receptors); black widow spider venom (inhibits vesicle recycling)
3 different sensory receptors for each of the sense have 3 things in common: Respond to a physical stimulus, convert stimulus to APs, give information to CNS
Sensation v. Perception Sometimes a delay between sense and knowledge of it (we don't live life in "real time")
Light enters eye... And is focused by lens onto retina.
Fovea Detail and color at back of eye
Electrical signals from photoreceptors Are transmitted to brain to allow for perception
How the lens focuses light rays on the retina Refracts them
If an object moves closer to the eye, lens must Change shape to keep focus
Accommodation Changing lens shape
Flatten lens Relax ciliary muscles; far objects
Rounded lens Contract ciliary muscles; near objects
Hyperopia Farsightedness; eyeball is too short, focal point behind retina; fixed by convex lenses (refracts light inward before entering eye)
Myopia Nearsightedness; eyeball is too long, focal point in front of retina; fixed by concave lenses (refracts light outward before entering eye)
Photoreceptors Light travels through retinal cells, reflects off back layer of eyeball, then stimulates photoreceptors; converts light energy to electrical signals at the retina; rearmost layer cells at retina
Photoreceptors (2 types) Rods, cones
Rod Mostly in peripheral retina; function well in low light; monochromatic; simpler
Cone Most abundant at fovea; color vision; color pair; doesn't work well at night
Optic nerve Second cranial nerve; ganglion cells
Optic disk Optic nerve and blood supply to eye go through; no photoreceptors (creates blind spot)
Optic chiasm Where ganglion cells from the nasal hemiretinas cross
Ganglion cells from the temporal hemiretinas stay or move? Stay on the same side
Lateral geniculate body Nerve takes info to thalamus (occipital lobe: primary visual cortex (V1))
Focal distance Distance between lens and retina
V1 projects to 2 streams Ventral and dorsal
Ventral stream Temporal lobe; "what"
Dorsal stream Parietal love; "where"
Grandmother neurons Face recognition neurons
Visual neglect Stroke affecting right parietal cortex (dorsal stream); lose concept of "left"
Prosopagnosia Stroke affecting ventral stream; difficulty recognizing faces
Muscles moving eyes 6 extraocular muscles (3 pairs)
Agonist Produces movement
Antagonist Resists movement
Superior rectus/inferior rectus Located above/below eye; elevates/depresses (looks above or below eye-level)
Lateral rectus/medial rectus Located on either side of eye; abduction/adduction (turns eye away from/to midline)
Superior oblique/inferior oblique Located above/below eye; starts at same place as rectus, but passes through a pulley; intorsion/extorsion (rotates eye); synergists (help the other muscles)
3 cranial nerves controlling extraocular muscles Oculomotor, trochlear, abducens
Oculomotor nerve Superior rectus; medial rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique
Trochlear nerve Superior oblique (pulley supporting superior oblique is called "trochlea")
Abducens Lateral rectus (lateral rectus abducts)
Diplopia Double vision
Eye movements Saccades, smooth pursuit, vergence, vestibuloocular reflex, optokinetic nystagmus
Saccades Very fast; quickly bring new areas of interest onto fovea; REM sleep; do NOT need to see to produce
Smooth pursuit Track moving objects; maintain image on fovea; image NECESSARY to produce; match velocity of object to velocity of eye
Vergence Eliminates retinal disparity
Optokinetic nystagmus Shakes eye; nystagmus: driver's ed (alcohol)
Superior colliculus Eye movements are controlled in the brain stem; affected by several cortical and subcortical sites
Created by: ktpognc