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chapter 2 vocabulary of the 8th edition rubenstein textbook

Demography The scientific study of population characteristics
Overpopulation The number of people in an area exceeds the capasity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Ecumene The portion of the Earth's surface that is covered by permanent human settlement.
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Physiological Density the number of people per unit of area of arable land (land sutible for farming)
Agricultural Density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agricultural.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate (CDR) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Natural Increase Rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the CBR minus the CDR
Doubling Time the number of years needed to double a population (assuming the NIR stays at a constant rate)
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman will have throughout her child-bearing years.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) the total number of of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year of agefor every 1,000 live births.
Life Expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. (women normaly have a higer life expectancy then men)
Demographic Transition The process of change in a society's population.
Stage 1 Low growth: CBR-high CDR-high NIR-stable
Stage 2 High growth: CBR-high CDR-drops NIR-increases
Stage 3 Moderate growth: CBR-drops CDR-low NIR-drops
Stage 4 Low growth: CBR-low CDR-low NIR-stable *zero population growth*
Agricultural Revolution The time when humans frist began to domesticate plants and animals. (stage 1)
Industrial Revolution A series of im provments in industrial technology that tranformed the process of manufacturing goods. (stage 2)
Dependency Ratio The number of people under the age of 15 and over the age of 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Sex Ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Population Pyramid A bar graph representing the distribution by age and sex.
Created by: sammie924
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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