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Chapter two key terms in text by H.J.Blij/Alexander Murphy

Term Definition
Culture The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society.
Culture Region The area within which a particular culture system prevails.
Culture Trait A single attribute of a culture.
Culture Complex A discrete combination of culture traits a culture consists of.
Culture System The grouping of culture complexes that have specific culture traits in common.
Geographic Regions Region in which its definition is not based only on cultural properties but on locational and environmental circumstances as well.
Culture Realm An assemblage of culture (or geographic) regions; the most highly generalized regionalization of culture and geography.
Geographic Realm The criteria on which realms are based extend beyond culture, although they are dominated by cultural characteristics; another term for culture realm.
Cultural Landscape The imprint a culture that occupies or influences an area leaves on the landscape.
Sequent Occupance The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
Culture Hearth The sources of civilization, outward from which radiated the ideas, innovations, and ideologies that would change the world beyond.
Civilization These latter began as cultural hearths, but their growth and development had a wider, sometimes global impact.
Cultural Diffusion The spread of an idea or innovation from its source area to other cultures.
Diffusion The process of dissemination.
Independent Invention The concept that a particular idea or innovation wasn't necessarily diffused to an area.
Expansion Diffusion An innovation or idea develops into a source area and remains strong there while also spreading outward.
Contagious Diffusion A form of expansion diffusion in which nearly all adjacent individuals are affected.
Hierarchal Diffusion A form of expansion diffusion in which the main channel of diffusion is some segment of those who are susceptible to (or adopting) what is being diffused.
Stimulus Diffusion A form of expansion diffusion in which knowledge of specific idea or innovation in another society stimulates or triggers the invention of a similar idea.
Relocation Diffusion The actual movement of individuals who have already adopted an idea or innovation and carry it to a new locale where they proceed to disseminate it.
Acculturation The process in which a less dominant culture adopts elements of the cultural practices and ideas of a dominant culture.
Assimilation When the adoption of cultural elements from the dominant culture becomes so complete that the two cultures become indistinguishable.
Transculturation An exchange in which both cultures function as sources and adopters cultural elements.
Migrant Diffusion A form of relocation diffusion in which an innovation originates somewhere and enjoys a strong, but brief, adoption there.
Environmental Determinism The belief that human behavior, individually and collectively, is strongly affected, controlled, or determined by the physical environment.
Possiblism An argument that the natural environment merely serves to limit the range of choices available to a culture.
Political Ecology An area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and understandings.
Created by: achrodes
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