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Chapters 9-11 Terms

AP World History Terms for Mrs. Fowler's Chapter 9,10 and 11 Test

Balkans Byzantine conquest here helped create contacts w/ key portions of Eastern Empire. Orthodox missionaries sent from Constantinople converted most of the people here, and itadopted some of the Byzantine culture.
Belisarius One of the Byzantine Empire's greatest empire. He lived during the reign of reign of the emperor Justin I and Justinian I. In June, 530 he led the Byzantines to a victory over the Persians at Dara.
boyars Russian aristocrats in Europe in the middle Ages. They were the prince’s closest advisors and were ranked just below him on the social hierarchy. They were the only people in the Russian kingdoms to own their own land.
Bulgaria State that was created during the Middle Ages when the Bulgars migrated into the southeastern Balkan Peninsula. The Bulgars created their own Slavic State in this area, which soon became heavily influenced by the Byzantine Empire’s culture.
Constantinople Imperial capital of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire, the Latin Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.
Cyril and Methodius Two Byzantine missionaries sent to convert all of eastern Europe and the Balkans to Christianity. They were responsible for creating the Cyrillic alphabet.
Cyrillic alphabet An alphabet based on that of the Greek’s and used by Slavic languages. It was heavily influenced by the Eastern Orthodox Church. Its creation is attributed to the missionary work of Cyril and Methodius.
Greek fire A weapon used by the Byzantines which was composed of a chemical mixture that ignited upon exposure to water; it was used to drive back Arab fleet that attacked Constantinople.
Hagia Sophia A 6th century masterpiece of Byzantine architecture in Constantinople (modern day Istanbul); built as a Christian church, converted to a mosque in 1453, and made into a museum in the middle of the 20th century. Ordered to be built in 360 by Justinian.
Hellenistic culture Unique culture similar to Greek spread by Alexander the Great after his conquest of the Persian Empire. These new kingdoms, however syncretized this new culture to include their indigenous cultures.
Huns A group of nomadic pastoral people who migrated into Europe around 370 AD, built up an enormous empire in Europe.
iconoclasm The deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. It is a frequent component of major domestic political or religious changes.
Icons Term used in a wide number of contexts for an image, picture, or representation; it is a sign or likeness that stands for an object by signifying or representing it either concretely or by analogy, as in semiotics
Justinian During his reign he sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire.
Magyars Turkic group that had taken over most of Hungary in the 9th century during the spread of Roman Catholicism throughout the Eastern portion of Europe.
Manzikert right after the split between east and west Europe, the Byzantine Empire enters a long period of decline. Turkish invaders start to press on the East. In the late 1000's, the Seljuk Turks seized almost all of the Asiatic provinces of the empire.
Orthdox Christian Church Started in the Byzantine Empire, then spread to Eastern Europe. The orthodox Christian churched radiated from Constantinople, when Emperor Constantine began to build churches there.
Procopius Byzantine scholar and historian to Justanians' wars. CE 500-565. counselor,assessor, and secretary to Belisarius. He wrote books about Justanian, the wars and the church and state.
Ravenna The capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 to 476. In 712, the Lombards occupied it but were forced to return it to the Byzantines; in 751 the Lombard king successfully conquered the city and thus ended the Byzantine rule in northern Italy.
Rurik Legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E.
Russian Orthodoxy Russian form of Christianity imported from the Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion. The king characteristically controlled major appointments. Prince Vladmir I was the one responsible for converting his people to Christianity.
Sassanian Empire Major Persian empire that existed alongside the Roman Empire. Fought many wars with the Romans and was frequently raided by the Bedouin tribes in pre-Islamic Middle East.
Tatars Were some Central Asian people who, over the centuries, were a threat to civilized peoples in Asia and Europe. They controlled much of Russia for over two centuries.
Theodora Born about 497-510. Died June 28, 548. Married Justinian, 523 or 525. Empress from April 4, 527. Was the empress of Byzantium from 527-548,she was probably the most influential and powerful woman in the empire's history.
Theodora and zoë Women held the imperial throne while maintaining the ceremonial power of the office. Theodora was the daughter of an emperor. Zoe was Theodora’s sister. Zoe married the imperial heir while Theodora refused.
Tsar Basil II Byzantine emperor in the 11th century and was known as Bulgaroktonos (slayer of the Bulgarians). Was a brave soldier and horseman as well as a strong ruler and an able general
Vladmir I Rurik descendant who ruled from 980 to 1015, finally took the step of converting to Christianity, not only in his own name but on behalf of all his people.
Yaroslav I Was one of Vladimir the great's sons in Russia. He fought his brothers brutally, a very bloody and harsh conflict, not ending well with death, banishment, and imprisonment.
Augustine of Hippo Latin speaking philosopher and theologian of Africa under Rome writings very influential in christianity, he is one of the most important people in christianity. He completely devoted himself to God, he went into priesthood and did partake in celibacy.
Battle of tours Christian forces under the leadership of Charles Martel defeated a Muslim army waging a war of aggression and conquest. This was a turning point in the continuing invasion ofmuslims into the Christian lands since the begin of Islam.
Benedict of Nursia Founded monasticism in what was considered the western half of the Roman Empire. He established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century; development paralleled that of Basil’s rules in the Byzantine Empire.
Beowulf (a myth) the earliest extensive work of literature in a vernacular language. Based on the Danish legend, the title character is said to have chased down and killed the monster Grendal before becoming King of his people.
Bernard of Clairvaux Powerful monk that successfully changed Adelard. He stressed the importance of mystical union with God, which was believed to be attainable even on this earth in brief blissful glimpses, rather than rationalist endeavor.
Black Death Devastating series of plagues that persisted for several centuries. It began in 1348; challenging Europe's population and social structures. It was said that at least 1/3 of the European population was lost to this plague.
Carolingians This was created by Pepin the Short in 751. They were a Frankish noble family who took over a monarchy in northern France, Belgium, and western Germany.
Charlemagne He was the son of Pepin the Great and as a ruler of the Carolingian family, his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans. This encouraged the formation of a common European identity.
Charles Martel One of the founders of the Carolingians. He had a major role in the development of feudalism and knighthood. Also, he laid the groundwork for the Carolingian Empire.
chivalry The code of conduct for knights. It developed the social cultures of the Western European empires.
Concordat of Worms Resulted from the quarrel with Pope over lay investitures. The conclusion was that the Emperor was allowed to name bishops and grant them land but it also gave the Pope the right to reject unworthy candidates.
Clovis An early Frankish king who converted to Christianity in 496 C.E. His motives were to gain prestige over local rivals who were still pagan. Franks, a Germanic tribe located in much of today’s France was united under him.
Cluny Founded in 910, was the center of a monastic reform movement that would spread throughout Europe.
Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Roman Catholic Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire.
Ferdinand ans Isabella resumed the Reconquest, dormant for more than 200 years, and in 1492 they captured Granada, earning for themselves the title of Catholic Kings.
Feudalism Both a political and military system between a lord and his vassals(lesser lords). These vassals were provided with protection from the lord in exchange for their loyalty(military service,goods, payments).
First crusade Was called by Pope Urban II in 1095, in hopes of recapturing Jerusalem that was taken by the Muslims in 1076. They were told that if they died in battle all their sins would be forgiven which cause for many people to volunteer.
Fourth Crusade (1202-1261) Were on another quest to capture the city of Jerusalem. They decided to hit the base of Muslim power at Egypt first and then headed to Venice for transport ships.
Francis of Assisi (1181-1226)-He is the patron saint of animals. He led a pious life, and founded the Friars minor. After his death he was ordained a saint.
Franks Germanic tribe located in the area that is now France. They were converted to Catholicism. In the 8th century, the Carolingian family produced a leader, Charles Martel, who led the Franks to fight the Muslims in present-day Spain.
Geoffrey Chaucer Author of the Canterbury tales. This book poked fun at many institution of medieval Europe, especially the church.
Gothic An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe that required great technical skills. Benefited from Muslim design and advances in structural engineering in the West. Featured pointed arches & flying buttresses as supports.
guilds Sworn associations of people in the same business of trade in a single city. They sometimes had loose links with others in other cities.
Hanseatic League (13th – 17th centuries) An organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance and encourage trade. It controlled trade in northern Europe.
Holy Roman Empire A realm that existed for about a millennium in Central Europe. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favor of the princes.
Hundred Years War a series of separate wars lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne. The House of Valois claimed the title of King of France, while the Plantagenets from England claimed to be Kings of France and England.
Ibn-Rushd regarded by many as the most important of the Islamic philosophers. A product of twelfth-century Islamic Spain, he set out to integrate Aristotelian philosophy with Islamic thought.
investiture Practice of state appointment of bishops. Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice. During the Middle Ages, the question who should appoint whom led to a major conflict or war with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Magna Carta Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215. It confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims and represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy.
manorialism A system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages. It involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
Middle Ages postclassical period in western Europe
moldboard Plow that was invented by the chinese in the third century.
parliaments Legislature of the kingdom of england. It began in1066 when William of Normandy introduced a feudal system, by which he sought the advice of a council of tenants-in-chief before he made laws. The parliaments limited the power of the English monarchy.
Peter Abelard A university scholar who wrote a treatise in the 12th century called “Yes or No.” He applied logic to problems of theology and demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
Pope Head of the Roman Catholic church,became the strongest political leader of Western Europe. He did not appoint bishops.
Pope Gregory VII Tried to purify the church and free in from interference by feudal lords. He also tried to free the church from state control.he excommunicated the emperor from the church.
Pope Urban II Called for the First Crusades in 1095, appealing to the piety of the West's rulers and common people. With this he set in motion the crusades against the Muslims in order to regain the Holy Land.
Raoul de Cambrai known as a hero of a French epic written down in the late 12th century, sets fire to a convent filled with nuns, then asks a servant to bring him some food. The servant berates him for burning the convent.
Roger Bacon English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on empirical methods. He is sometimes credited as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by the works of Plato and Aristotle.
Roman Catholic Church One of the oldest continuous branches of Christianity, played a prominent role in Western civilizatiion. It was founded by Jesus Christ, its bishops are successors of his apostles, and the Pope as the successor of St. Peter possesses a universal primacy.
Romance of the Rose In France, a long poem which used vivid sexual imagery, and the poet Villon wrote, in largely secular terms, of the terror and poignancy of death. The work was both very popular and controversial
Romanesque Architecture followed Roman models. A Romanesque style had rectangular buildings surmounted by domes. Romanesque included rounded arches, barrel vaults, thick walls, darker, simplistic interiors, and small windows (usually at the top of the wall).
scholasticsm System of philosophy of medieval Europe and based on Aristotle and Church Fathers. To reconcile Christian theology with classical and late antique philosophy.
serfs A semifree peasant of a low hereditary class, slavishly attached to the land owned by a feudal lord and required to perform labour, enjoying minimal legal or customary rights.
Song of Roland (French)The epic poem is the first and most outstanding example of the chanson de geste, a literary form that flourished between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries and celebrated the legendary deeds of a hero.
Third Crusade attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. It was largely successful, yet fell short of its ultimate goal—the reconquest of Jerusalem.
Thomas Aquinas an Italian priest of the Catholic Church in the Dominican Order, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism. foremost classical proponent of natural theology.
three estates broad divisions of a hierarchically conceived society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners recognized in the Middle Ages and in Early Modern Europe.
three-field system An agricultural technique developed during the Middle Ages (by the 9th century) in Western Europe. This method of farming involved splitting the land into three different sections.
vassals members of the military elite who received land/ benefice from their lord in return for military service and loyalty. Any person who receives land in turn for a home on their lord’s estate and military protection.
Vikings Scandinavian pirates who plundered the coasts of Europe from the 8th to 10th centuries. They colonized Iceland, Greenland and shortly colonized Newfoundland. They appeared along the coasts and rivers of Europe, as traders, and as raiders, and as settlers.
William the Conqueror built a strong feudal domain the the province of France. He extended his tight feudal system to his new Kingdom, England.
Anasazi They were a people and culture. They had a rich religious life and their artistic ceramic and weaving traditions reflected their own historical traditions.
Araucanian Indians They stiffly resisted the Incan armies. They lived in the fertile vallies of South Central Chile. They did not recognize political or cultural unity above the village level.
Ayllus Households in the Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship, and they traced their descent from some common, sometimes mythical ancestor. They controlled the land and a vast majority of males were peasants.
Aztecs One of the nomadic tribes that used political anarchy after the fall of Toltec’s to penetrate in to the sedentary agricultural zone of Mesoamerican plateau. They established an empire after 1325 around the shores of Lake Texcoco.
calpulli kinship group, comparable to a “class”. In the beginning, it simply maintained its neighborhood temples and civic buildings in each city ward. Soon afterwards, it was divided into seven clans.
cannibal kingdom ritual cannibalism in regards to Aztec human sacrifices. Sometimes, the sacrificed body was supposedly boiled and given out to people as gifts, but few people actually ate it.
Chichen Itzá was a major focal point in the northern Maya lowlands from the Late Classic through the Terminal Classic and into the early portion of the Early Postclassic period. The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles.
Chimor Chimu culture. Largest kingdom in the Late Intermediate period, encompassing 1,000 km of coastline. The greatest surviving ruin of this civilization is the mud city of Chan Chan.
chinampas Method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico.
Cortès An explorer and conqueror who landed on the shore of an Aztec civilization in what is Mexico today. The Aztecs revered him as a god; he abused their generosity and eventually overtook them.
"flowery death" The Aztec description of suicide: death while taking prisoners for the sacrificial knife. It was viewed as a fitting end to a noble life as it ensured eternity in the highest heaven.
Hopewell A Native American culture which centered in the Ohio valley from 200-500 A.D.; it is known for moundbuilding.
huacas Believed by the Inca people to be a natural location from where each lineage originated and is regarded among the sacred places.
Huitzilopochtli A tribal god and a legendary wizard of the Aztecs. Originally he was of little importance to the Nahuas, but after the rise of the Aztecs, Tlacaelel reformed their religion and put Huitzilopochtli making him a solar god.
Inca The largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The Inca civilization aros from the highlands of Perus sometime in the early 1200s.
"Inca socialism" A view created by Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia. An image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
mayeques New class of workers was created to serve as laborers on these lands. Were sometimes from dependent clans or more often from conquered peoples.
metates Flat stone that has a shallow depression in the upper surface for holding maize or other grains to be ground with a mano. This was a agricultural technique used in the Americas that helped the diversity of foods.
mita Communities were expected to take labor turns on state and church lands and sometimes on building projects or in mining and were an essential aspect of Inca control.
mitmaq straight up, they were Inca colonists in new regions. Sometimes Quechua-speakers from Cuzco (they are the mitmaq) were settled in a newly won area to provide an example and a garrison. Other times, the Incas moved a conquered population to a new home.
Moctezuma II He was born around 1466, and was to become a successful ruler and general even before he became emperor from 1502-1520.He died in 1520 during a battle with the Spanish, though the exact cause of his death is a matter of disagreement.
Nahautl Group of related languages and dialects of the Nahuan people. This language has been spoken in central mexico since the 7th century. It was the main language of the Aztecs and after the intoduction of Latin, it was the language of literary and poetry.
Nezhualcoyotl (1402-1472) A philosopher, warrior, poet and ruler of the city-state of Texcoco. He was not an Aztec. He built an entirely empty temple in which no blood sacrifices of any kind were allowed even animals.
oregones Were members of the Inca nobility. The nobles of Cuzco were given noble status to enable them to serve in high bureaucratic posts. They were distinguished by dress and custom.
Pachacuti Was the ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471. He was the ninth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cuzco which later became the Inca Empire.
pipiltin Members of the hereditary nobility and occupied the top positions in the government, the army and the priesthood. Increased social stresses which attributed to internal weaknesses of the Aztec Empire's downfall.
Pochteca A professional long-distance traveling merchant group in the Aztec Empire. They were a small, but important class as they not only facilitated commerce, but also communicated vital information across the empire and beyond its borders.
Quetzalcoatl A Toltec deity, known as the Feathered Serpent. It was adopted by the Aztecs as a major god and was related to gods of the wind, of Venus, or merchants, and of arts, crafts and knowledge.
quipo A system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system. It could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records.
split inheritance When a ruler died, the political power and titles went to the successor, but his heirs kept his palaces, wealth etc. to take care of the mummy. Therefore, each new successor needed to acquire new lands and wealth, which furthered expansion.
Temple of the Sun The most important Inca temple in Cuzco, honoring the sun god. The walls, floor and ceiling were covered in gold sheets, and there were many gold statues.
Tenochtitlan Founded by the Aztecs in about 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco. They chose the island because they saw an eagle perched on a cactus with a serpent in its beak.
Tihuanacoand Huari (c. 550-1000) called "horizon states"(since they are in the Andes). featured large ceremonial center supported by extensive irrigated agriculture; established widely diffused religious and artistic symbols spread all over Andean zone
Tiacaelel The principal architect of the Aztec Triple Alliance and hence the Mexica (Aztec) empire.
Tialoc Important deity in Aztec religion, god of rain, fertility, and water. Was a beneficent god who gave life and sustenance, but he was also feared for his ability to send hail, thunder and lightning, and for being the lord of the powerful element of water.
Tlatelolco Originally a separate island city in Lake Texcoco, but later it incorporated into Tenochtitlan.
Toltecs Nomadic people from beyond the northern frontier of the inactive agricultural area in Mesoamerica. They migrated to central Mexico and established the capital of Tula in 968 C.E. They had a strong militaristic ethic.
Topac Son and successor of Pachacuti. He seized Chimor’s irrigation system so he was able to conquer its northern kingdom and their holy shrine of Pachacamac.
Topiltzin He introduced Toltecs to ideas of civilization & a life of peace and prosperity. Also, he ended the practice of human sacrifice promoting animal sacrifice instead. He created a cult that emphasized celibacy for all priests and no intoxication whatsoever.
Tula Usually identified as Toltec capital in 980 CE.
Twantinsuyu Name of Inca empire. They were very focused on their ancestors, practiced mummification ( basically it was a cult for the dead). Their main god of worship was the son god but also worshipped Viracocha (creator god).
Viracucha creator god of the Incan times in incan mythology. According to the incas viracocha created all things- universe, sun, moon, stars, time, and the civilization, Believed to have come from Lake Titicaca and dissapeared across Pacific ocean.
Yanas Class of people within incan society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, and workers for incas/inca nobility.
Yupanqui Successful conquerer who brought most of the central Andes under Inca rule, rebuilt the city of Quito with the help of architects from Cuzco. Son of Pachacuti. His empire extended from modren day Colombia to Chile and all the way out to Argentina.
Created by: 1067684567