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A&P Lab Unit 1


Differential / Selective / Permeablity Allows nutrients to enter the cell, but keeps out undesirable substances
Passive processes Concentration or pressure differences drive the movement.
Active Processes The cell provides energy (ATP) to power the transport process.
Concentration gradient Difference in concentration
Diffusion The movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration.
Simple Diffusion The unassisted diffusion of solutes through a differentially permeable membrane.
Osmosis The flow of water across a differentially permeable membrane
Hypertonic A solution surrounding a cell which contains more non-penetrating solute particles than the interior of the cell.
Hypotonic A solution surrounding a cell which contains fewer non-penetrating solute particles than the interior of the cell.
Isotonic A solution surrounding a cell which contains the same amount of non-penetrating solute particles as the interior of the cell.
Crenation Crinkling-up process due to hypertonic solution
Hemolysis Rupture of erythrocytes
Active Transport Membrane transport processes for which ATP is required, e.g., solute pumping and endocytosis.
Vesicular transport The movement of large particles and macromolecules across a plasma membrane.
Endocytosis Means by which fairly large extracellular molecules or particles enter cells.
Exocytosis Mechanism by which substances are moved from the cell interior to the extracellular space as a secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane.
Phagocytosis Engulfing of foreign solids by cells.
Pinocytosis Engulfing of extracellular fluid by cells.
Fluid-phase Endocytosis Engulfing of extracellular fluid by cells.
Receptor-mediated Endocytosis One of three types of endocytosis in which engulfed particles attach to receptors before endocytosis occurs.
Cell Structural unit of all living things
Nucleus Control center of a cell; contains genetic material
Plasma Membrane Separates cell contents from the surrounding environment.
Cytoplasm The cellulat material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane.
Chromatin Structures in the nucleus that carry hereditary factors
Chromosomes Barlike bodies of tightly coiled chromatin, visible during cell division
Nucleoli Dense spherical bodies in the cell nucleus involved with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Nuclear Envelope The double membrane barrier of a cell nucleus.
Cytosol Viscous, semitransparent fluid substance of cytoplasm in which other elements are suspended.
Organelles Small cellular structures that perform specific metabolic functions for the cell as a whole.
Ribosomes Tiny spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein; actual sites of protein synthesis; floating free or attached to a membranous structure in the cytoplasm.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranous system of tubules that extends throughout the cytoplasm; two varieties – rough is studded with ribosomes and smooth, which has no function in protein synthesis.
Golgi Apparatus Stack of flattened sacs with bulbous ends and associated small vesicles; found close to the nucleus
Lysosomes Various-sized membranous sacs containing digestive enzymes; function to digest worn-out cell organelles and foreign substances that enter cell; have the capacity of total cell destruction if ruptured
Mitochondria Generally rod-shaped bodies with a double-membrane wall; inner membrane is thrown into folds, or cristae; contain enzymes that oxidize foodstuffs to produce cellular energy (ATP); often referred to as “powerhouses of the cell”
Cytoskeletal Elements Provide cellular support; function in intracellular transport
Microtubule Form the internal structure of the centrioles and help determine cell shape
Intermediate Filaments Stable elements composed of a variety of proteins and resist mechanical forces acting on cells
Microfilament Formed largely of actin and are important in cell mobility
Centrioles Paired, cylindrical bodies lie at right angles to each other, close to the nucleus, direct the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division; forms the bases of cilia and flagella.
Mitosis Process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to two daughter nuclei; nuclear division
Meiosis Nuclear division process that reduces the chromosomal number by half and results in the formation of four haploid cells; occurs only in certain reproductive organs.
Chromatid Double-stranded structures of chromosomes
Centromere Small median body connected to chromatid
Cytokinesis The division of cytoplasm that occurs after the cell nucleus has divided
Mitotic Spindle System of microtubules which acts as scaffolding for the attachment and movement of the chromosomes
Asters ”Stars” radiate outward from the ends of the mitotic spindle
Interphase One of two major periods of cell life cycle; includes the period from cell formation to cell division
Prophase The first stage or mitosis, consisting of coiling of the chromosomes accompanied by migration of the two daughter centrioles toward the poles of the cell, and nuclear membrane breakdown.
Metaphase The second stage of mitosis
Anaphase The third stage of mitosis,meiosisI, and meiosis II in which daughter chromosomes move toward each pole of a cell.
Telophase The final stage of mitosis. Begins when migration of chromosomes to the poles of the cell has been completed and ends with the formation of two daughter nuclei
Epithelial Tissue Covers surfaces, cells fit closely together to form membranes, supported by connective tissue, no blood supply(avascularity), easily regenerate
Epithelial Tissue Membranes always have one free surface, called the apical surface, and typically that surface is significantly different from the basal surface.
Shapes of Epithelia Squamous, cuboidal, columnar
Connective Tissue The most abundant and widely distributed tissue type.
Connective Tissue Rich supply of blood vessels, composed of many types of cells, noncellular and nonliving material (matrix) between the cells.
Types of Connective Tissue Areolar, Adipose, Reticular, and Dense; Cartilage, Bone, and Blood
Extracelluar Matrix collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers; collagen fibers are most abundant
Nervous Tissue Composed of neuroglia and neurons.
Neuroglia Supporting cells that protect, support, and insulate neurons.
Neurons Highly specialized to receive stimuli and to conduct waves of excitation to all parts of the body.
Muscle Tissue Highly specialized to contract and produces most types of body movement
Types of Muscle Tissue Skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle (visceral muscle)
Differential Permiability Plasma membrane that allows nutrients to enter cell, but keeps out undesirable substances
Active Transport The cell provides energy (ATP) to power the transport
Passive Transport Driven by concentration or pressure differences between the interior and exterior of the cell
Diffusion The movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration.
Simple Diffusion Diffusion of solute particles dissolved in water through a differentially permeable membrane
Facilitated Diffusion Solutes combine with carrier protein molecules in the membrane and are being transported along or down their concentration gradient.
Osmosis The diffusion of water through a differentially permeable membrane
Solute Pump Protein carrier molecule
Pinocytosis The cell membrane sinks beneath the material to form a small vesicle, which then pinches off into the cell interior. Most common for taking in liquids containing protein or fat
Phagocytosis Parts of plasma membrane and cytoplasm expand and flow around a relatively large or solid material such as bacteria or cell debris and engulf it, forming a membranous sac
Golgi Apparatus plays a role in packaging proteins or other substances for export from the cell or incorporation into the plasma membrane and in packaging lysosomal enzymes.
Integument Skin
Hypodermis Superficial Fascia
Epidermis The avascular, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium consisting for four distinct cell types and four or five distinct layers.
Keratinocytes The most abundant epidermal cells, they function mainly to produce keratin fibrils.
Keratin A fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its durability and protective capabilities.
Melanocytes Spidery black cells that produce melanin to protect the nuclei of the cells in the deeper epidermal layers.
Epidermal dendritic cells Play a role in immunity
Tactile (Merkel) cells Form sensitive touch receptors in conjunction with sensory nerve endings.
Layers of the Epidermis Stratum basale, Stratum spinosum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum corneum
Stratum Basale A single row of cells immediately adjacent to the dermis. The cells are constantly undergoing mitosis.
Stratum Spinosum Spiny layer
Stratum Spinosum Several cell layers immediately superficial to the basal layer. Cells divide rapidly, but less rapidly than the basal layer.
Stratum Granulosum Granular layer
Stratum Granulosum A thin layer consisting of two types of granules: lamellated granules and keratohyaline granules. Granules combine with intermediate filaments to form keratin fibrils.
Stratum Lucidum Clear layer
Stratum Lucidum Very thin translucent band of flattened dead keratinocytes with indistinct boundaries. NOT present in regions of thin skin. Cells are dead.
Stratum Corneum Horny layer
Stratum Corneum Outermost epidermal layer consists of 20-30 cell layers. Cells are dead and fully keratinized.
Layers of the Dermis Papillary and Reticular
Papillary layer Most superficial dermal layer composed of areolar connective tissue. Uneven layer with finger like projections.
Dermal Papillae Fingerlike projections attached to the epidermis in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet causing friction ridges.
Reticular layer The deepest skin layer composed of dense irregular connective tissue. Contains: arteries, veins, sweat glands, subaceous glands, and pressure receptors.
Nail Body The visible attached portion
Nail Free Edge The portion of the nail that grows out away from the body
Nail Root The part that is embedded in the skin and adheres to an epithelial nail bed
Nail Folds Skin folds that overlap the borders of the nail
Nail Eponychium The thick proximal nail fold commonly called the cuticle
Nail Bed Extenstion of the stratum basale beneath the nail
Nail Matrix The thickened proximal part of the nail bed containing germinal cells responsible for nail growth
Lunule The proximal region of the thickened nail matrix, which appears as a white crescent.
Hair Bulb Collection of well-nourished germinal epithelial cells at the basal end of the hair follicle
Hair Follicle A structure formed from both epidermal and dermal cells. A small nipple of dermal tissue that protrudes into the hair bulb from the connective tissue sheath and provides nutrition to the growing hair is called papilla
Arrector pili muscle Small band of smooth muscle cells connect each hair follicle to the papillary layer of the dermis
Sebaceous Glands Found all over the skin except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet; the ducts usually empty into a hair follicle.
Sebum The product of sebaceous glands; a mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells that acts as a lubricant to keep the skin soft and moist.
Sweat Glands Sudoriferous Glands
Eccrine Glands Produce clear perspiration consisting primarily of water, salts, and urea
Apocrine Glands Found primarily in the axillary and genital areas; secrete a milky protein and fat rich substance
Epithelial Membrane A simple organ consisting of an epithelial sheet bound to an underlying layer of connective tissue proper
Cutaneous Membrane The skin, a dry membrane with a keratinizing epithelium
Mucous Membranes Composed of epithelial cells and lines all body cavities that open to the body exterior
Lamina Propria Loose layer of connective tissue below epithelial cells of mucous membrane
Serous Membranes Epithelial membranes composed of simple squamous epithelium and areolar connective tissue.
Parietal Layer Lines a body cavity
Visceral Layer lines the outside of organs
Synovial Membranes Composed entirely of connective tissue, line cavities surrounding the joints, provide smooth surface and secret lubricating fluid
Created by: suprant