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Hist/Relg Israel

History and Religion of Ancient Israel study material for Midterm 1

"biblical Israel" Israel as it is understood by writers of the Bible; based on Abraham and family; cultural/religious identity strong
"ancient Israel" modern historians attempt to describe Israel; unified people is a development over time
Merneptah stele first physical evidence of Israel, victory artifact in Egypt; canaanites/shared culture practices/kosher/socioeconomic status
exogamy marriages of daughters to other families, within a relatively small distance
endogamy don't marry outside clans
households families
clans groups of families
tribes military grouping of clans to respond to threats
Greater Ephraim Central Israel, consist of Manassah, Ephraim, Benjamin
Manassah, Ephraim, Benjamin "Greater Ephraim"
Gideon, Deborah, Ehud Southern Israel
Samuel major prophet, crowned Saul and David
Saul King involved in conflict with Philistines
Arc (YHWH) The Arc where the covenant is kept
Judah the land ruled by the kingdom of David
Philistines coastal land in the south, Abraham stayed there for a while as a guest
chiefdon a group ruled by a chief
Hebron under Hittite control during Abraham and conquered by Canaan in Joshua
Tel Dan Inscription first authentic historical reference to David; historical evidence of a biblical story
Jerusalem The capital of Israel
Temple In Jerusalem, the place where God dwells among his people
Zion the biblical land of Israel
Omride Dynasty first dynasty of Northern Kingdom
Omri king of Omride Dynasty; defeated by Assyrians
Samaria kingdom to the north of Judah, kingdom of Israel during Omri dynasty
Qarqar battle where Assyria gained control over the kingdom of Israel
Assyria powerful nation that conquered Israel during the Omride Dynasty
Aram vassal of Assyria, client of Assyria, pays tribute so Assyria wouldn't conquer it
Ahaz King of Aram who created the deal
vassal a group that pays tribute for protection, so as not to be conquered
Hezekiah ruler of Ahad, disliked vassal status; fails
Sennacherib/Assyria Sennacherib was the king of Assyria, tried to conquer Judah but failed
Siloam inscription record of the construction of the tunnel in 8th century BC, meaning more proof Hezekiah and the line of David existed
Josiah end of vassal status of Ahad; emphasizes the deity for national identity; killed in battles by Egypt
Deuteronomy A book in the Torah detailing how to be an Israelite
Babylon defeats Assyria and becomes the new powerful nation
Torah first five books of the Bible
Persian/Achaemenid Persians take over the territory
golah exiles
Yehud a kingdom mentioned in Joshua
diaspora exile of the Israelites outside of Israel
Hellenism The belief that with free time created by advanced agricultural methods, one should study Torah
Judaism the religion develops as a result of Hellenism
popular religion religion of the people
state religion religion of the state
bet-av house of the father
patrilineal property and responsibility passes through senior males
patrilocal centered where father's land is, women will marry out
patriarchal senior male has the authority
polygyny one male marrying multiple women
adultery in biblical terms: having relations with a married woman. does not apply to unmarried women
levirate marriage a widow will marry her husband's brother and produce children in the deceased brother's name
mishpahah setting for religious observance
massot holiday associated with Pesach
Pesach (passover) agricultural origin for modern Jewish holiday; 14th day of Nissan to correspond to full moon of Nissan
teraphim household shrines
fertility gods multiple in ruins of Ancient Israel; indication of importance of survival applies to women and the land
Asherah A fertility goddess important to Israelites before they began only worshipping one god
Ba'al an important G-d, but not THE god; fertility God, defeats Yamm and Mot; represented by rain, thunder, divine warrior
Yamm God of the Sea; defeated by Ba'al
Mot god of death; defeated by Ba'al
El the Lord
divine counsel cabinet of gods that work underneath El
Zaphon of Zaphon
Ashtoreth El's consort
Asherah fertility god
Loran (Leviathan) sea monster/dragon; defeated by Ba'al
Anat trouble maker
theophoric embedding the name of the Lord, as El, YHWH, etc.
bosheth Ruler of Israel until David defeated him
monolatry worshipping one god while admitting that other gods exist
Elijah demanded that Israel depend on a national deity who is seen to have a special relationship to people
Kuntillet 'Arjud texts that give evidence that YHWH had a consort and that there are other deities
monotheism believing in one god
bamah (bamot) "high place"; local setting for feast/sacrifice
alter worshipping centerpiece
Holiest of holies innermost room of the Temple
cherubim common motif in royal iconography
axis mundi "naval of the universe"; where religion and the mundane intersect
textual criticism which text/translation to read
masoretic texts masoretes, provided cotex for hebrew bible, standardized the texts somewhat
septuagen greek translation of hebrew bible, cotext
formal correspondance word for word approach, maintain original integrity with vocab and grammar
dynamic equivalence maintain understanding more so than specific vocab; tends to paraphrase
destruction assumes any time we make text meaningful, text runs away from us
historical criticism reading to understand the history behind it
source criticism context of the writer, different sources compiled
priestly source sections of Bible that were written by priests
aetiogoly historical text to explain current events/trends/etc.
redaction criticism the meaning of the text through editing/redaction
Enuma Elish text; babylonian-reenacted at New Year's, telling the Babylonian creation
Akitu Festival Babylonian festival of the New Year where the Babylonian version of creation is told
theogeny birth/origin of the gods
Apsu freshwater god of Babylon
Tiamat saltwater god of Babylon, killed by Marduk and body became the cosmos
Marduk patron god of Babylon, defeated Tiamat
cosmogonic battle battle that establishes the cosmos
Leviathan sea monster; symbol of chaos
Rahab Leviathan
tehom spirit of the die (God); present in Gensis while earth is created
polemic debate or controversy
cosmology study of the stars
Sabbath seventh day of creation where God rested, commanded his people to rest every seventh day
primeval history history of humanity as a whole; not just Israel
Adam and Eve First man and woman
Cain and Abel Cain was a farmer; Abel was a herdsmen, God rejected Abel's arbitrarily, Cain killed Abel and began the first sin: muder
Jubal descendent of Cain
Tubal-Cain descendent of Cain
The Deluge sons of god come and mate with human women
Nephalim giant offspring of god's sons and human women; they create war
covenant an agreement
Tower of Babel Babylonian tower that they would build to the heavens; god wanted diversity and created linguistic differentiation so it would not be completed
Torah foundational text of Israelites and later jews
foundational text the main text of a group that dictates its rules etc.
patriarchs Abram/Abraham, Issac, Jacob/Israel
matriarchs Sarai/Sarah, Rebekah, Leah/Rachel
Other everyone who is not an Israelite
Esau Jacob's eldest brother, Jacob stole the birthright from him by trickery, became super powerful anyway and he and Jacob lived happily ever after
Mari records are there that demonstrate that Biblical stories are authentic
Nuzi records are there that demonstrate that Biblical stories are authentic
eponymous ancestor (first one) whom everything is named after
Negeb land inhabited by the Israelites
Mamre where Abraham learned Sarah would become pregnant by divine intervention
Machpelah Sarah's final resting place where Abraham paid to bury her and own the land
Bethel place in Great Ephraim where Jacob's name was changed to Israel
Shechem Where God created the covenant with Abraham
Peniel Where Jacob met God and lived to tell the tale; they actually wrestled
trickster Issac, Jacob, etc. trickers tend to be celebrated
Hager Sarah's slave, given to Abraham to have children, mother of Ishamel
Ishmael son of Abraham, too close to Isaac and was sent away to preserve Issac's birthright; given his own nation by the Lord
Lot Abraham's nephew, leaves for better land, eventually lives in Gomorra and the Lord spares him. Daughters sleep with him to continue the line
Sodom Destroyed with Gemorah after sinful people lived there
Moab son of Lot by his daughter, created the Moabites
Ammon son of Lot by his daughter, created the Ammonites
Laban close kin of Abraham; very tricky father of Leah and Rebecka
Arameans tribe of Laban
Aramaic language closely linked to Hebrew in ancient Israel
Ephraim leader of the Tribe of Ephram, Jacob's son, received one of the better blessings
Manassah with Tribe of Ephram, created House of Joseph
internecine rivalry fighting against each other (between brothers); not helping national identity acknowledging difficulty of situation
Bilhah Leah's slave, gave children to Jacob
Zilpah Rachel's slave, gave children to Jacob
Song of Jacob Jacob's last words; last will and testament; settling his scores; gave good blessings and bad blessings based on his favorites
testament statement that the author has deemed to be true
Tamar doesn't participate in levirate marriage, tricked her way into the family, seduced father-in-law and became pregnant by him; super clever and celebrated
levirate marriage marrying the dead husband's brother and having children in the dead husband's name
deus absconditis belief in a god that has largely removed themselves for the day to day of the world
difference Israelites are the chosen people and they are different from every other tribe
Shiphrah an Israelite midwife; told to kill male infants but tricked Pharaoh because he did not know about childbirth
Puah worked with Shiphrah
Moses one who led the exodus
Aaron Moses' brother
Gershom Moses' son
theophany burning bush;
bridegroom of the blood tale of Moses on his way back to Egypt. YHWH almost kills him over circumcision
circumcision cutting of little boys. marks men as Israelites
plagues plagues sent by God to prove his power over the Pharaoh, helped let Israelites leave Egypt
Pesach/Passover holiday celebrating the plagues and the exodus of Israel
Sea of Reeds story of ultimate difference
Divine Warrior YHWH's new identity/role in Ancient Israel
Sinai, Horeb The place where Moses met with the Lord and the ten commandments were created
covenant berit
berit covenant
suzerain vassal state with some autonomy
theophany burning bush; appearance of a deity to a human
segullah divinely instituted covenant
election voting to choose a leader
holiness being clean and abiding by a deity
mysterium tremendum et fascinans mystery that frightens and fascinates simultaneously; used with deities
Decalogue form of literature such as apodictic law
apodictic law as 'honor they father'; law w/ no rationality; simply stated; no obvious penalty
monolatry mandates only one god but does not deny there are other gods
monotheism belief in only one deity
aniconic requirement shunning all other deities, gods, etc.
casuistic law case law; has specific punishment indicated and based on specific circumstances
Covenant Code codes given to Moses at Sinai, detail mitzvot
golden calf purpose of the story to detail punishment of breaking apodictic law; breaks commandment number one
tabernacle portable dwelling place for the Lord during the Exodus
cult religious status and symbols
holiness understood separation. if something is holy, separate it so it does not become unclean. highly ordered to create boundaries.
kosher dietary laws. cow, goat, lamb, fish are okay, no pig, camel, shellfish, various birds, swarming things, mixing milk and dairy
kashrut state of kosherness, the laws that define what kosher is
unclean when one has sinned and has not made reparations and made themselves cleaned again. many things make you unclean and it is infectious
holy of holies the part of the temple where God is closest and only rabbis can stand, everyone else is prohibited
Nadab and Abihu story where the moral is if you violate the rules, you die. also how important the priests are and the danger of violating the priests
priesthood leader of the temple requiring special ordination, family connection, and difficult standards to accomplish
ordination the process of becoming a priest in the temple
Levites not priests, but very close to priests because they work in the temple. need a family connection to work as a Levite
tamid details of the service in the Temple
whole burnt offerings where the entire offering is burnt and there is no remains
sin offerings offerings to restitute for past sins
Yom Kippur the holiest of holy days, where the entire community cleanses itself of its sins and prepares to be with the Lord
Azazel during Yom Kippur; where a sacrifice is sent, that sacrifice is concentrated with the impurities of the rabbis
Josiah king who is responsible for Deuteronomy and turned it into a means of recreating cultural identity among his people
Deuteronomists Those who wrote Deuteronomy
Covenant an agreement, in the bible the covenant is originally between Abraham and God but beyond that becomes an agreement between the Israelites and God
vassal treaty one land agrees to be a vassal to another by paying tribute to the larger one in exchange for protection preamble, prologue, stipulations, deposit arrangements, witnesses, curses and blessings
hesed royal love; the love God has for his chosen people the Israelites
Shema A prayer in Deuteronomy that is short, simple, and a means of repeating allegiance to God. It's an imperative to follow this one God and no others
theology of the name The name of God dwells in the holiest places, it sticks around as a presence even if one cannot feel the Lord there
herem the practice of utterly destroying anything you come in contact with, as the Israelites once did in their travels
holy war fighting in the name of holinesses and your deity
theodicy defending the Lord in the face of suffering
blessings and curses theodicy, Deuteronomy uses these to say the Lord is not responsible for suffering and it is the natural cycle of life to suffer
humanitarian in Deuteronomy, there are laws that are more humanitarian and dictate that we must take care of those who cannot care for themselves
utopian perfect, idealistic world
Created by: jsroff



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