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6SS Chapter 5

Middle East

What does Mesopotamia mean? land between two rivers
Which 2 rivers run through Mesopotamia? Tigris & Euphrates
What did Mesopotamians build to control the river's flow? canals
What is the Fertile Crescent? the region of rich farmland between the Mediterranean Sea and Persian Gulf
What made the land fertile for farming when the rivers flooded the area? silt
What did the geography of Mesopotamia consist of? a mountainous north and low-lying south
What problems did early Mesopotamians experience? flooding & little rainfall
Where was ancient Mesopotamia located in the present day Middle East? Iraq
What is silt? a mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks
Which part of the Euphrates River flows into the Persian Gulf? the mouth
Who served as a link between the Sumerians and the gods? the priests
Who established the first empire? Sargon
What is cuneiform? a form of writing using wedge-shaped symbols
What was the world's first civilization called? Sumer
Who created the world's first civilization? the Sumerians
Who performed religious ceremonies? the priests
What are ziggurats? large temples built by the Sumerians
What was the basic political unit of Sumer called? city-state
What is an example of polytheism? the religion of the Sumerians
What did the Sumerians believe about gods? they controlled every aspect of life
What did the Sumerians first use cuneiform for? to keep records of business
What type of homes did most Sumerians live in? 1-story homes
What Akkadian emperor ruled for 50 years? Sargon
What are the social classes of the Sumerians? Kings, priests, craftspeople, and merchants, laborers, slaves
What is a food surplus? having more food than is needed
What number is the Sumerians math system based on? Sixty
Who was the first epic written about? a hero named Gilgamesh
Describe the city of Ur. harbors and canals, a giant temple, and a maze of houses and shops
What did the Sumerians use to build vehicles such as carts? the wheel
How did Sumerians sign documents? by rolling their cylinder seal over it
What did the Sumerians excel in? math and medicine
Who were the first people to master iron-making? the Hittites
What is a chariot? a wheeled, horse-drawn cart
What city in Iraq was located near present-day Baghdad? Babylon
Who were the first people to write stories and poems about gods and military victories? the Babylonians
What made writing easier for the Phoenicians? the development of an alphabet
How did the Assyrians spread terror before attacking? by looting villages and burning fields
What did the Hittites and Assyrians use in battle? iron weapons and chariots
What present-day country was Phoenicia located in? Lebanon
Why did the Phoenicians mainly use the sea for trade? because the overland trade routes were blocked
What was Phoenicia well known for? cedar wood
What was Hammurabi best known for? his code of laws
What was the next major power to rule the region after the fall of Ur? Babylon
When did the Babylonians power decline? soon after Hammurabi's death
What famous Chaldean king rebuilt the city of Babylon? Nebuchadnezzar
Created by: ndmsteach