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A/P Unit 1

Unit One Vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
Axial Relating to head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis
Abdominal Pertaining to anterior body truck region inferior to the ribs
Acromial Pertaining to the point of the shoulder
Antebrachial Pertaining to the forearm
Antecubital pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
Brachial Pertaining to the arm
Buccal Pertaining to the cheek
Calcaneal Pertaining to the heel of the foot
Carpal Pertaining to the wrist
Cephalic Pertaining to the head
Cervical Pertaining to the neck region
Coxal Pertaining to the hip
Crural Pertaining to the leg
Digital Pertaining to the fingers and toes
Dorsum Pertaining to the back
Femoral Pertaining to the thigh
Fibular/peroneal Pertaining to the side of the leg
Frontal Pertaining to the forehead
Gluteal Pertaining to the buttocks or rump
Hallax Pertaining to the great toe
Inguinal Pertaining to the groin
Lumbar Pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
Mammory Pertaining to the breast
Manus Pertaining to the hand
Mental Pertaining to the chin
Nasal Pertaining to the nose
Occipital Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
Olecranal Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
Oral Pertaining to the mouth
Orbital Pertaining to the bony eye socket
Otic Pertaining to the ear
Metacarpal Pertaining to the palm of the hand
Patellar Pertaining to the anterior knee region (knee cap)
Pedal Pertaining to the foot
Pelvic Pertaining to the pelvis region
Perineal Pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
Plantar Pertaining to the sole of the foot
Pollex Pertaining to the thumb
Popliteal Pertaining to the back of the knee
Pubic Pertaining to the genital region
Sacral Pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
Scapular Pertaining to the shoulder blade area
Sternal Pertaining to the region of the breastbone
Sural Pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
Tarsal Pertaining to the ankle
Thoracic Pertaining to the chest
Umbilical Pertaining to the navel
Vertebral Pertaining to the area of the spinal column
Superior Above another structure
Inferior Below another structure
Anterior Toward the front of the body
Posterior Toward the back of the body
Ipsilateral Same side of the body
Contralateral Opposite side of the body
Medial Toward the midline of the body
Lateral Away from the midline of the body
Cephalad/Crainial Toward the head (top)
Caudal Toward the tail (bottom)
Dorsal Backside
Ventral Bellyside
Proximal Nearer the trunk or attached end
Distal Farther from the trunk or point of attachment
Superficial Toward or at the body surface, external
Deep Away from the body surface, internal
Frontal Plane Plane that divides the body into front and back
Sagittal Plane Plane that divides the body into right and left
Parasagittal Plane Plane that is near the median plane
Transverse Plane Plane that divides the body into top and bottom
Parietal Serosa Outerwall surrounding a cavity
Visceral Serosa Lining surrounding an organ
Mucous Membranes Open to body’s outside
Serous Membranes Do not open to body’s outside
Axillary Pertaining to the armpit
Cranial Cavity Contains the brain
Vertebral Cavity Contains the spinal cord
Dorsal Body Cavity Contains the cranial and vertebral cavities
Thoracic Cavity Contains heart and lungs
Abdominal Cavity Contains stomach, intestines, liver, etc
Pelvic Cavity Contains reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum
Ventral Body Cavity Contains the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Umbilical Region The centermost region, which includes the umbilicus
Epigastric Region Region immediately superior to the umbilical region
Hypogastric Region Region immediately interior to the umbilical region
Iliac Regions Regions lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones
Lumbar Regions Regions between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hip bones; lateral to the umbilical region
Hypochondriac Regions Regions lateral to the epigastric region and overlying the lower ribs
Oral Cavity Contains mouth, tongue, and teeth
Nasal Cavity Cavity within the posterior of the nose
Synoval Cavities Cavities that surround the freely movable joints of the body
Integumentary Epidermal and dermal regions
Integumentary Protects deeper organs from mechanical, chemical, and bacterial injury, and desiccation (drying out)
Integumentary Excretes salts and urea
Integumentary Aids in regulation of body temperature
Integumentary Produces vitamin D
Skeletal Bones, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and joints
Skeletal Body support and protection of internal organs
Skeletal Provides levers for muscular action
Skeletal Cavities provide a site for blood cell formation
Muscular Muscles attached to the skeleton
Muscular Primary function is to contract or shorten; in doing so skeletal muscles allow locomotion, grasping and manipulation of the environment and facial expression
Muscular Generates heat
Nervous Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors
Nervous Allows body to detect changes in its internal and external environment and to respond to such information by activating appropriate muscles or glands
Nervous Helps maintain homeostatis of the body via rapid transmission of electrical signals
Endocrine Pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands; ovaries, testes, and pancreas
Endocrine Helps maintain body homeostasis, promotes growth and development; produces chemical “messengers” (hormones) that travel in the blood to exert their effect(s) on various “target organs” of the body
Cardiovascular Heart, blood vessels, and blood
Cardiovascular Primarily a transport system that carries blood containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ions, hormones, and other substances to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made
Cardiovascular Antibodies and other protein molecules in the blood act to protect the body
Lymphatic/Immunity Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and scattered collections of lymphoid tissue
Lymphatic/Immunity Picks up fluid leaked from the blood vessels and returns it to the blood
Lymphatic/Immunity Cleanes blood of pathogens and other debris
Lymphatic/Immunity Houses lymphocytes that act via the immune response to protect the body from foreign substances (antigens)
Respiratory Keeps the blood continuously supplied with oxygen while removing carbon dioxide
Respiratory Contributes to the acid-base balance of the blood via its carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
Digestive Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and accessory structures (teeth, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas)
Digestive Breaks down ingested foods to minute particles, which can be absorbed into the blood for delivery to the body cells
Digestive Undigested residue removed from the body as feces
Urinary Kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
Urinary Rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes (urea, uric acid, and ammonia), which result from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids by body cells
Urinary Maintains water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood
Male Reproductive testes, prostate gland, scrotum, penis, and duct system, which carries sperm to the body exterior
Male Reproductive Provides germ cells (sperm) for perpetuation of the species
Female Reproductive Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, mammary glands, and vagina
Female Reproductive Provides germ cells (eggs); the female uterus houses the developing fetus until birth; mammary glands provide nutrition for the infant
Thymus An irregular mass of glandular tissue overlying the heart.
Heart Medial oval structure enclosed within the pericardium (serous membrane sac).
Lungs Organs flanking the heart laterally
Trachea Tube running medially down the throat; part of the respiratory system
Bronchi Two passageways that plunge laterally into the tissue of the two lungs
Esophagus A food chute; the part of the digestive system that transports food from the pharynx to the stomach
Diaphram A thin muscle attached to the inferior boundary of the rib cage; separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Stomach A curved organ important in food digestion and temporary food storage
Small intestine Connected to the stomach and ending just before the sac like cecum
Large intestine A large muscular tube connected to the small intestine and ending at the anus
Cecum The initial portion of the large intestine
Rectum Terminal part of the large intestine; continuous with the anal canal
Anus The opening of the digestive tract (through the anal canal) to the exterior
Mesentery An apronlike serous membrane; suspends many of the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity
Pancreas A diffuse gland; rests dorsal to and in the mesentery between the first portion of the small intestine and the stomach
Spleen A dark red organ curving around the left lateral side of the stomach; considered part of the lymphatic system and often called the red blood cell graveyard
Liver Large and brownish red; the most superior organ in the abdominal cavity, directly beneath the diaphragm
Kidneys Bean-shaped organs; retroperitoneal
Adrenal glands Large endocrine glands that sit astride the superior margin of each kidney; considered part of the endocrine system
Ureter Tube running from the indented region of a kidney to the urinary bladder
Urinary bladder The sac that serves as a reservoir for urine
Inferior vena cava The large vein that returns blood to the heart from the lower regions of the body
Descending aorta Deep to the inferior vena cava; the largest artery of the body; carries blood away from the heart down the midline of the body
Anatomy Study of the structure of living organisms.
Physiology Study of the function of living organisms.
Metabolism Sum total of the chemical reactions occurring in the body cells.
Catabolism Process in which living cells breakdown substances in to simpler substances.
Anabolism Energy-requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances.
Cell organelles Small cellular structures that perform specific metabolic functions for the cell as a whole.
Cell Structural unit of all living organisms.
Tissues A group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized to perform a specific function; epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
Organs A part of the body formed of two or more tissues and adapted to carry out a specific function.
Organ systems A group of organs that work together to perform a vital body function.
Organism The living animal or plant, which represents the sum total of all its organ systems working together to maintain life.
Superior Above another structure
Inferior Below another structure
Anterior Toward the front of the body
Posterior Toward the back of the body
Medial Toward the midline of the body
Lateral Away from the midline of the body
Intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Ipsilateral Same side of the body
Contralateral Opposite side of the body
Proximal Nearer the trunk or attached end
Distal Farther from the trunk or point of attachment
Superficial Toward or at the body surface, external
Deep Away from the body surface, internal
Parietal Outerwall
Visceral Internal
Sagital Plane that divides the body into right and left
Midsagittal Exact midline of the body
Parasagittal Offset from the midline of the body
Anatomical position The standard body position, the body is erect with feet slightly apart, palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from the body.
Frontal Pertaining to the forehead
Coronal Frontal Plane, divides body into anterior and posterior.
Horizontal plane Transverse Plane, cross-section of body, divides body into superior and interior.
transverse plane Plane that divides the body into top and bottom
cephalic Pertaining to the head
cervical Pertaining to the neck region
acromial Pertaining to the point of the shoulder
olecranal Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
dorsal Backside
ventral Bellyside
popliteal Pertaining to the back of the knee
sural Pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
plantar Pertaining to the sole of the foot
calcaneal Pertaining to the heel of the foot
cranial Toward the head (top)
orbital Pertaining to the bony eye socket
otic Pertaining to the ear
buccal Pertaining to the cheek
nasal Pertaining to the nose
oral Pertaining to the mouth
mental Pertaining to the chin
axillary Pertaining to the armpit
brachial Pertaining to the arm
antecubital Pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
antebrachial Pertaining to the forearm
carpal Pertaining to the wrist
metacarpal Pertaining to the palm of the hand
pollex Pertaining to the thumb
digital Pertaining to the fingers and toes
femoral Pertaining to the thigh
patellar Pertaining to the anterior knee region (knee cap)
crural Pertaining to the leg
tarsal Pertaining to the ankle
hallux Pertaining to the great toe
dorsal body cavity Contains the cranial and vertebral cavities
ventral body cavity Contains the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
pleural cavities Contains the lungs
mediastinum The medial cavity of the thorax containing the heatr, great vessels, and trachea.
hypochondriac Regions lateral to the epigastric region and overlying the lower ribs
epigastric Region immediately superior to the umbilical region
lumbar/loin Regions between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hip bones; lateral to the umbilical region
umbilical The centermost region, which includes the umbilicus
iliac Regions lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones
inguinal Pertaining to the groin
hypogastric Region immediately interior to the umbilical region
homeostasis A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body
negative feedback The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
positive feedback Causes the level of variable to change in the same direction as an initial change.
receptors Some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes by sending information to the second component.
effectors Provides the means for the control center’s response to the stimulus.
internal receptors Receptors which are sensitive to changes and stimuli within the body’s internal environment
external receptors Receptors which are sensitive to changes and stimuli within the body’s external environment
steady state Homeostatic balance
Created by: suprant