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Chap.4 Key Terms

Phlebotomy Handbook:Blood Specimen Collection from Basic to Advanced 8th Edition

AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS Use of protective devices that reduce the spred of droplet transmission of infectious agents such as rubeola, varicella, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
ANTISEPTICS Chemicals used to clean human skin by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms.
ASEPSIS absence of the microorganisms that produce sepsis or septic disease.
ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES A degree of cleanliness that prevents infection and growth of microorganisms. The technique to achieve this condition includes frequent hand washing, use of barrier garments, and PPE, waste management of contaminated materials and using sterile procedures
BLOOD-BORNE PATHGENS (BBP) Pathogenic microorganisms, including hepatitis B virus and huham immunodeficiency virus, that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans.
CENTERS for DISEASE CONTROL prevention federal agency responsible for monitoring morbidity (disease) and mortality (death) throughout the country.
CHAIN of INFECTION the process by which infections are transmitted; components include the source of the infection (nonsterile items, contaminated equipment or supplies etc.), mode of transmission (direct contact, airborne,etc.), and the susceptible host (patient).
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE category of diseases resulting from the transmission of infectious microorganisms to individuals by direct or indirect contact or as an airborne infection.
CONTACT PRECAUTIONS protective measures that reduce the risk of transmission of serious diseases through direct or indirect contact.
DISINFECTANTS chemical compounds used to remove or kill pathogenic microorganisms; typically used on medical instruments or countertops.
DROPLET PRECAUTIONS used to reduce transmission of diseases such as pertussis,etc. Can be transmitted through mucous membrane of eye, mouth or nose w/ large-particle droplets from sneezing, coughing or talking.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) federal agency that, among its other responsibilities, regulates the disposal of hazardous substances and monitors and regulates disinfectant products.
FOMITES inanimate objects that can harbor infectious agents and transmit infection (e.g. toilets, sinks, linens, door knobs, glasses, phlebototmy supplies, etc.).
INFECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS guidelines designed to address surveillance, reporting,isolation procedures, education, and management of community-acquired and health-care associated infections.
INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (ICU) area where patients are more critically ill, require additional monitoring, and more susceptible to infections.
ISOLATION PROCEDURES methods used to protect individuals (health care workers) from patients with infectious diseases.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION refers to the method by which agents are transmitted.
Occupational Safety and Health Admistration (OSHA) an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor requiring employers to provide a safe work environment including measures to protect workers exposed to biological and occupational hazards.
PERCUTANEOUS through the skin.
PERMUCOSAL through mucous membranes of the mouth, eye, and nose.
PROTECTIVE ISOLATION (REVERSE) precautionary measures and procedures designed to protect patients who are particularly susceptible or at increased risk of acquiring infections.
SOURCE The origin of infection (e.g. human hands,lab coats or other clothing, contaminated medical instruments, etc.)
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS a set of safeguards designed to reduce the riskof transmission of microorganisms.
SUSCEPTIBLE HOST the degree to which an individual is at risk for acquiring an infection. Factors affecting susceptibility are age, drug use, degree and nature of patient's illness, and patient's immune system.
TRANSMISSION-BASED PRECATUTIONS categories of precautionary measures based on the route of transmission of disease. Three types of transmission-based precautions are airborne, droplet, and contact precautions.
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION infections acquired after admission into a health facility.
Created by: L.Ariane