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Human Geography AP Chapter 1 Vocab

absolute location the position or place of a certain item on the surface of the earth as expressed in digress, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude
accessibility the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations.
activity (action) space the space within which daily activity occurs
cartography The art and science of making maps, including data compilation, layout, and design. Also concerned with interpretation of mapped patterns.
connectivity The degree of direct linkages between one particular location and other locations in a transport network.
contagious diffusion The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person.
cultural barrier Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas, or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in a particular culture.
cultural diffusion The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.
cultural ecology The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.
cultural hearth Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture
cultural landscape The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
culture The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society.
culture complex A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
culture trait A single element of normal practice within a culture, such as the wearing of a turban
distance measurement of the physical space between two places.
environmental determinism The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. Also referred to as environmentalism.
epidemic regional outbreak of a disease
expansion diffusion The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
fieldwork The study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places
five themes Location, human-environment, region, place, and movement.
formal region A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena, also called a uniform region or a homogeneous region
functional region A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it.
geocaching A hunt for a cache, the GPS coordinates which are placed on the internet by other geocachers
geographic concept ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions
geographic information systems (GIS) a collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
globalization the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact.
global positioning system (GPS) satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
hierarchical diffusion a form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples.
human-environment the second theme of geography; reciprocal relationship between humans and environment
human geography one of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human populations, its cultures, activities, and landscapes
independent invention the term for a trait with many cultural hearts, which developed independently of each other
isotherm Line on a map connecting points of equal temperature values
landscape the overall appearance of an area, usually composed of natural and human-induced influences
location the first theme of geography; the geographical situation of people and things
location theory a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
medical geography the study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective
mental map image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of the space
movement the fifth theme of geography; the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet
pandemic an outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide
pattern the design of a spatial distribution
perception of place Belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, stories, movies, or pictures.
perceptual region A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity
physical geography One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and locations of the Earth's natural phenomena such as soil, climate, plants, animals, and topography.
place One of the five themes of geography; the uniqueness of a location
political ecology An approach to studying nature-society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated.
possibilism Geographic viewpoint that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development.
reference maps Maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude
regions One of the five themes of geography; an area on the Earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon
relative location The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
relocation diffusion Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones.
remote sensing A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g., satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study
rescale Involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an initiative (e.g., use of the Internet to generate interest on a national or global scale for a local position or initiative
sense of place State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in n that place or by labeling that place with a certain character
sequent occupance The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
spatial pertaining to space on the earth's surface; sometimes used as a synonym for geographic
spatial distribution Physical location of geographic phenomena across space
spatial interaction the flow of products, people, services, or information among places, in response to localized supply and demand.
spatial perspective observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
stimulus diffusion A form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of a cultural trait from another place
thematic maps Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon
time-distance decay The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source
Created by: Carolxl
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