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HESC Death & Dying
Chapter 1-5 from text The Last Dance 7th ed by DeSpelder, Strickland
|Chap1-1: Define Thanatology?
|Greek word thanatos= "death" *the study of death. ***Robert Kastenbaum definition: "the study of live with death left in"
|Chap1-2: Average life expectancy in the U.s. in 1900?
|Current Chap1-3: life expectancy in 2000?
|Chap1-4: causes of death in 1900 v.s today?
|***acute infectious diseases ex. TB (tuberculosis), typhoid fever, diphtheria, streptococcal septicemia, syphilis, pneumonia. side note: Today Chronic disease and degenerative diseases. Top 3= Heart Disease, Cancer, Stroke, lung disease
|Chap1-5: Define Epidemiologic Transition
|Is a historical shift in disease patterns characterized mainly by redistribution of deaths from young to the old.
|Chap1-6: Some reasons for using euphemism when speaking about death?
|1. Mask the reality 2. devalue and depersonalize death ex. "body count" during war or "collateral damage"-->lessen the horror 3.Sympathy and condolence ex. greeting cards
|Chap1-7: how does HUMOR fuction as an expressions of attitude toward death?
|Humor helps diffuse some anxiety about death helps but fears in to a more manageable perspective.
|Chap 2-1: Four major characteristics of a mature concept of death?
|An understanding of death that includes recognition of the observable facts about death. *1. universality *2. Irresversibility *3. Nonfunctionality *4. Causality 5.personal motality-may be added but related to the Universality conce
|Chap 2-2: Nonempirical ideas of death?
|ideas not subject to scientific proof- deal mainly with the notion that humanbeings survive in some form beyond deathof the physical body.
|Chap 2-3: Noncorporeal Continuity?
|term use by Speece and Brent. The notion, usually related to spiritual or religious beliefs, that the human personality or soul survives in some form after the death of the physical body.
|80% of deaths in 1900 took place versus today?
|1900 in the house. Today in institutional settings such as hospitals and nursig homes.
|substitutions of indirect or vague words and phrases for ones considered harsh or blunt.
|chap 1: how does language fuction as an expressions of attitude toward death?
|euphemisms, metaphors, and slang are use as coping mechanisms. They may lessen anxiety and fear. Use indirect. ex. Words death and dying replace by "pass away" or laid to rest.
|how does music fuction as an expressions of attitude toward death?
|dirge musical form associated with funeral processions and burials ex. jazz funerals of New Orleans
|how does mass media fuction as an expressions of attitude toward death?
|influences the way we think and respond to death. tend not to resemble the losses we experience in our lives. Protrays death as coming from the outside and violent. cause people to be less sensitive to the real violence and its victims.
|how does HUMOR fuction as an expressions of attitude toward death?
|may defuse anxiety. Place fears into more manageble perspectives.1. Raises our consciousness about a taboo subject and gives us way to talk about it. 2.opportunity to rise above sandness, release pain, give sense of control 3. great leveler 4."social glue
|how does visual arts fuction as an expressions of attitude toward death?
|"mean world" syndrome
|A situation in which the symbolic use of death contributes to a "discourse of fear" leading to a heightened sense of danger and irrational dread of dying.
|All living things eventually die.
|Death is final
|cessation of all physiological functioning
|biological reasons for the occurrence of death
|I will die
|when does personal mortality emerge?
|8-9 years old
|when so we posses full understading of the empirical components?
|9-10years old and father and refined during adolescence and young adulthood and fluactuates throughout life
|What plays an important role in undersatding death?
|more importat is the (blank ) than age in Erickson developmental when related to death.
|Erickson's modelof human development focuses on?
|stages of psychological development or psychosocial milestone in a humans life. depend on person enviroment and relationship with other. each stage involve a crisis that requires a response
|trust v.s. m
|informal death education ex. sudden death of gerbil, accident such as Columbia, Challeger, 911, death of famous person Informal opportunities for learning that arise out of ordinary experiences and occur in an interactive and usually spontaneous process.
|Piaget's focused on?
|cognitive trasformation 4 stges that are based on how an individual organizes their experience of the world.
|Trust v.s mistrust (infancy/ birth to 1yr old)
|death in an infant caregiver can lead to mistrust: parent important, a loss in the care givers life can also affect childs sense of predictability about the world
|Autonomy v.s. Shame and doubt (toodler/2-3 yrs old)
|experiencing independent while also shame/doubt is a hallmart of this stage ex. potty train. period of letting go, death of some one close may interfer with independence and cause regression to earlier behaviors
|initiative v.s. guilt (4-6yrs old) or Preoperational (2-7)
|seeks their own purpose or direction while also been concern how caregiver perserve their actions. beginning of child moral sense. may feel he cause the death. mutilation/disfigurement is feared. death is reversible. may not be sure is they will die
|industry v.s. inferiority (6-13?) or concreate operational (7-12)
|interaction with peers. Encouragement is crucial. compare self to other classmates. been different is unwanted . capable of naming intentional and unintetional means of death.
|identity v.s role confusion or formal operational
|close death may cause rapid growing up, may bring to surface unsolved issues. death threatens achivements. chess. understand death but personal death may not be accepted.
|The process of learning and internalizing the beliefs, values, rules, and norms of a society. younger members learn from old members. mainly during childhood but its lifelong
|A group of people who share a common culture, a common territory, and a common identity, and who interact in socially structured relationships.
|Four major agents of socialization?
|Family, school and peers, Mass Media, Literature, religion
|Everything in human society that is socially rather than biologically transmitted; the ways of thinking, feeling, and acting--that is, the lifeways--of a given group of people. It is dynamic, changes with reevaluation of beliefs, values, customs,
|culture operates as?
|framing device that channels rather than determines
|The restructuring of basic attitudes, values, or identities that occurs when adults assume new roles that require a reevaluation of their existing values and modes of behavior. ex. marriege, new job, having children
|In the context of informal death education, strategies used to change individuals' perceptions and behaviors about some aspect of their social world. ex. hospice
|offers solace, suggest meaning of dying, provide mourning rituals
|religious group you idetify yoourself with
|The relative importance of religion in a person's life.
|emotional ties with a religion
|participation in religious ceremonies
|degree to which religion is integrated into the person's daily life
|knowledge about the religion's traditions, beliefs, and practices
|Death and Dying have not only biological events but are also affected by (blank), (blank), (blank)
|social, spiritual, enviromental factors
|name 3theoretical perspectives on socialization.
|1. structural-functinalist 2. symbolic interctionism 3.social learning approach
|A social theory that emphasizes the freedom of individuals to construct their own reality as well as to potentially reconstruct what has been inherited by actively responding to the social structures and processes in their lives.
|Social learning theory
|The idea that individuals learn how to behave as members of a society through a process of conditioning that involves reinforcement of social norms by means of rewards and punishments.
|five major social insitution, family, religion, economy, political system and education work together to make society whole. Anything that happens in one social intitution affects the other.