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Phlebotomy Summer

Phlebotomy Summer Course 2010

QuestionAnswer
What is the first vein of choice? Median Cubital Vein
What is the second vein of choice? Cephalic Vein
What is the third vein of choice? Basilic Vein
What is near the Basilic Vein? Brachial Artery and Median Nerve
What will a properly tied tourniquet do? Allow Arterial blood to flow, and Venous blood to slow and pool.
How far above the site should the tourniquet be tied? 3-4 inches
What does palpate mean? To examine by touch
What is the bevel of a needle? The opening of the needle, which should always be facing up.
What is the shaft of a needle? This is the gauge of the needle.
What is the hub? Where the needle threads into the adapter
What is the rubber sleeve? This prevents blood from leaking when tubes are removed
What is the adapter? Aids in the placement and removal of tubes
What is the Patient Bill of Rights? Not a legal document, but an accepted statement of principle a patient must understand their rights.
What does HIPAA stand for? Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
What are DRG's? Diagnosis Related Groups, government decides payment of patient care regardless of length of stay
What are reference laboratories? Large independent labs that have contracts with other facilities to preform both routine and highly specialized tests
What are ICD-9 codes? International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition. What will be paid by insurance companies and Medicare depending on the diagnosis code provided by the doctor
What is the CDC and what do they do? Center for Disease Control, responsible for tracing and preventing the spread of disease
What is OSHA and what do they do? Occupational Safety and Health Administration, regulates workplace safety
Define infection Occurs when a pathogen invades the body
Define Systemic Infection Throughout the whole body
Define Local Infection Restricted to a small area of the body
Define pathogen The organism that causes the disease (bacteria, fungus, virus)
What is a Nosocomial Infection? Infections that are contracted by a patient after admission to the hospital.
How many links make up the chain of infection? Six
Define Causative Agent It is a bacteria, fungus, virus or protozoa
Define Reservoir Host Where the causative organism can survive
Define Exit Pathway How the infection leaves their host
Define Means of Transmission The method by which microorganisms can be transmitted from one hos to another
Define Entry Pathway How the microorganism enters the susceptible host
Define Susceptible Host A person with a compromised immune system
How many Means of Transmission are there? Five
Define the two subcategories of Contact transmission Direct- skin to skin and Indirect- exposing a susceptible host to a pathogen by the means of an inanimate object (fomite)
Which means of transmission can only travel less than 3 feet and cannot remain suspended in air? Droplet Transmission
Which means of transmission are generated by talking, coughing, and sneezing, can travel more than 3 feet and remain suspended on dust particles? Airborne Transmission
Which means of transmission carries causative agents through contaminated food, water, medications, and blood? Vehicle Transmission
Which means of transmission carries infections through flies, fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, and rats? Vector Transmission
What's the difference between TB disease and TB infection? TB disease is active TB, while TB infection is when the bacteria is present but the carrier is not contagious
How do you break the chain of infection? Washing your hands
Which vaccination is required by federal law to be available free of charge to all employees that have occupational risk? Hepatitis B Vaccination
What are PPE's? Personal Protective Equipment
What are the 5 types of Isolation? Strict, contact, respiratory, blood and body fluids, and reverse or protective isolation
Define Universal Precautions Designed to prevent the transmission of blood borne pathogens. All blood and most body fluids that contain blood are considered potentially infectious. Regardless of diagnosis all patients are considered potentially infectious
Define Body Substance Isolation was designed for the body fluids UP did not cover, regardless if there was blood present or not, stated that hand washing after glove removal was not needed
Define Standard Precautions Combine UP and BSI into a single set of precautions to be used for the care of all patients when coming into contact with body fluids regardless if there is blood present
Define Transmission Based Precautions Used when a patient has a known or suspected infection
A Biologic Hazard is an infectious agent
Any materials that are harmful to health are Biohazards
Needles, lancets and broken glass all go into which category of objects that can cause blood borne infections? Sharps
When a substance has a risk of causing a possible exposure to toxic, or carcinogenic substance it is a? Chemical Hazard
Anything with electricity running through it is a potential? Electrical Hazard
Bunsen burners, oxygen and chemicals can all be what type of hazard? Fire or Explosive
Lifting incorrectly, bending and running are all examples of Physical Hazards
What is the Needle Stick Safety and Prevention Act? Any new equipment that is brought into the facility must be first used by the employees, and after a trial period employees will be asked about the equipment
What is a Class A fire? Ordinary combustibles like wood, paper and cloth.
What is a Class B fire? Flammable liquids like grease, gasoline, paints and oils.
What is a Class C fire? Electrical equipment, motors and switches
What is a Class D fire? Flammable metals
What does P.A.S.S. stand for? Pull pin, Aim nozzle, Squeeze trigger, Sweep nozzle
What does R.A.C.E. stand for? Rescue, Alarm, Confine, Extinguish
What are the principles involved in radiation safety? Distance, Shielding, and Time
What is the OSHA HazCom Standard? "The right to know law"meaning all dangerous chemicals must be labled
What is an MSDS? Material Safety Data Sheets, contains information for all chemicals
Pale cold clammy skin, rapid weak pulse, increased shallow breathing, and expressionless face and staring eyes are symptoms of? Shock
What are the 5 steps to providing first aid for shock? 1. Maintain an open airway, 2. call for help, 3. Lie the victim down and elevate the feet, 4. Attempt to control bleeding or other cause of shock, 5. Keep the victim warm
Superior means Upper
Inferior means Below
Anterior means Front or Ventral
Posterior means back or dorsal
Medial means toward the middle
Lateral means toward the side
Proximal means Towards the point of attachment
Distal means Away from the point of attachment
Prone means face down
Supine means Face up
Frontal Plane divides the body into front and back portions
Sagittal Plane divides the body into right and left portions. Midsagittal is equal
Transverse Plane divides the body into upper and lower portions
Dorsal cavity includes which 2 cavities? Cranial (Brain) and Spinal (spinal cord)
The Ventral Cavity includes which 3 cavities? Thoracic (lungs heart ribs) Abdominal (digestive system) and Pelvic (reproductive organs)
Define Metabolism all the chemical reactions that happen within the body
Define Anabolism create needed product
Define Catabolism break down of products
Cells are? The smallest living unit
A group of cells that have the same shape and function create a..? Tissue
Two or more types of tissues that have the same shape and function create a..? Organ
A group of organs that have the same functions create an..? Organ system
What are the four (4) types of tissues? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Every living organism is in a constant process of maintaining a "steady state" or balance. This is called Homeostasis
The skeletal system consists of? Bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons
Ligaments connect.. Bone to bone
Tendons connect.. Muscle to bone
What are the 4 classifications of bones? Flat bones, Irregular bones, Long bones and Short bones
Synovial joints contain.. Synovial fluid
What is Gout and what test is used to check for it? A metabolic disease caused by deposits of Uric Acid in the joints becoming full of crystals. Its a Uric Acid test, drawn in an SST and sent to Chemistry
What is Osteoporosis? Imbalance between the breaking down of bone
What is Osteomyelitis? Inflammation of the bone caused by bacterial infections
What is Alkaline Phosphatese (ALP) drawn in? SST and sent to Chemistry
What is a Calcium (Ca) test drawn in? SST and sent to Chemistry
What is a Phosphorus (P) test drawn in? SST and sent to Chemistry
What is a Vitamin D test drawn in? SST and sent to Chemistry
What are the three types of muscles? Skeletal (Striated), Smooth (Non-striated), and Cardiac (lightly striated)
Which Muscles are under voluntary control, and which are involuntary Voluntary- Skeletal Involuntary- Cardiac and Smooth
What is a Creatine Phosphokinase (CK/CPK) or CPK/CK Iso enzymes drwan in for STAT and routine tests? STAT- Green and sent to Chemistry Routine- SST and sent to Chemistry
What is a Lactic acid drawn in and what are the special procedures? Gray top tube, with NO tourniquet and NO fist, must be transported on ice to Chemistry
What is a Lactic Dehydrogenase (LD/LDH) drawn in? SST and sent to Chemistry, STAT is Green
What is a Myoglobin test drawn in? SST and sent to Chemistry
What is Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) (GOT) (SGOT) drawn in? SST and sent to Chemistry STAT Green
What is a Creatine Kinase MB (CK-MB) drawn in? SST and sent to Chemistry
What is Muscle Atrophy? Decrease in size due to inactivity
What is Muscular dystrophy? Genetic disease in which muscles waste away
What is the outermost layer of the Integumentry system? Epidermis
What is the Stratum Corneum? dead cells, outermost layer, where Keratin is produced
What is the Stratum Germinativum? live cells, innermost layer of Epidermis, where melanin is produced
Which layer is also called the "true skin"? Dermis
The dermis contains 2 glands, what are they and what do they produce? Sebaceous gland- produces oil called sebum Sudoriferous gland- produces sweat
What is the Subcutaneous Layer? Lies underneath the Dermis and is composed of Fat and loose connective tissue, and insulates deep tissue
What is Kaposis Sarcoma? A form of skin cancer found in patients with AIDS. Characterized by numerous bluish red lesions on the skin
Define Acne Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles
Define Impetigo Staph or strep infection
What is Psoriasis? Chronic skin condition of unknown origin characterized by clearly defined red patches of scaly skin
What does the Central Nervous System include? Brain and Spinal Cord
What is the largest part of the brain? Cerebrum
Which part of the brain plays an important part in motor control and in Latin also means "little brain"? Cerebellum
Which is the brains link to the Endocrine System? Hypothalamus
What connects the spinal cord to the brain and manages messages going between the brain and the rest of the body? Brain Stem
What are Meninges? Membranes that surround the Central Nervous System
What is the Pia Mater? Inner layer of meninges, adheres to the surface of the brain
What is the Arachnoid Mater? Middle layer of the meninges
What is the Dura Mater? outermost layer of meninges that surrounds the skull
What does the Peripheral Nervous System consist of? All the nerves that project from the brain and spinal cord
What are the 2 main nerves associated with the Peripheral Nervous System, and what do they do? Motor- efferent nerves carry impulses from the CNS Sensory- afferent nerves carry impulses to the CNS
What is a Neuron? Specialized cells that direct impulses
What is the brain of a cell? Nucleus
What do the Dendrites do? Carry impulses to the nucleus
What is the Axon? A fiber optic highway that extends from the cell body, carrying impulses away from the cell body
What is the Myelin Sheath? Protective layer over the Axon
What is a Synapse? A small space separating the neurons from the next set of dendrites
What is epilepsy? Seizure disorder
What is Meningitis? Inflammation of the membranes of the spinal cord and brain
What is Multiple Sclerosis? Disease that causes destruction of the Myelin Sheath
What is Shingles? Adult onset Chicken Pox
What is a Dilantin test drawn in? SST and sent to Toxicology
What is Seratonin drawn in? SST and sent to Toxicology
What does a Cerebral Spinal Fluid test consist of? CSF (not drawn by us) Glucose, Protein, cell count, and culture
What does the Endocrine System Produce? Hormones
Which is the master gland that secretes hormones to stimulate other glands? Pituitary Gland
Which hormone stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete Cortisol? What tube and department? Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) SST to Chemistry
Which hormone stimulates the Kidneys to reabsorb water? What tube and department? Anti-diuretic Hormone (ADH) SST to Chemistry
Which hormone stimulates the development of Ova and Sperm? What tube and department? Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) SST to Chemistry
Which hormone stimulates growth? What tube and department? Growth Hormone (GH) SST to Chemistry
Which hormone controls Thyroid Activity? What tube and department? Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) SST to Chemistry
Which gland is located in the middle of the brain and calcifies after puberty? Pineal Gland
Which hormone effects sleep and wake cycles? What tube and department? Melatonin. SST to Chemistry
Which is the largest gland in the body? Thyroid gland
Which hormone regulates calcium in the blood? What tube and department? Calcitonin SST to Chemistry
Which hormone accelerates metabolic rate in the tissues? What tube and department? Thyroxine (T4) SST to Chemistry
Which hormone maintains normal heart rate and development of bone and muscle tissue? What tube and department? Triidothyronine (T3) SST to Chemistry
Which small glands are located posterior the Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands
Which hormone regulates blood calcium levels, increases blood calcium levels, and regulates P metabolism? Which tube and department? Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) SST to Chemistry
Which gland is active in immune response? Thymus gland
Which hormone is active in the development of lymphocytes? What tube and department? Thymosin Hormone SST to Chemistry
Which glands are located on top of each Kidney? Adrenal glands
Which hormone is active in fight or flight response? Which tube and department? Adrenal Medulla Hormone. SST to Chemistry
Which hormones are produced by the Adrenal Cortex? Corticosteroid hormones and Androgens and estrogens
What is the name of the cluster of cells found within the Pancreas? Islets of Langerhans
What does insulin do? Needed for movement of glucose into the cells and decreases blood glucose levels
Which word means secreting too little? Hyposecretion
Which word means secreting too much? Hypersecretion
Which disorder is characterized by the over growth of hands, feet and face caused by excessive Growth Hormone in adult hood? Acromegaly
Which form of diabetes causes increased thirst and urine production? Diabetes Insipidus
Which disorder is characterized by swollen "moon shaped" face and redistribution of fat to abdomen and back of neck caused by excess Cortisone? Cushing Syndrome
What is Diabetes Mallitis? What is the blood test called, and what is the tube and department? Deficiency of Insulin. Hemoglobin A1C (Hgb A1C) Lavender to Chemistry
Name the six organs of the Gastrointestinal tract. Mouth, Pharynx, Larynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestines, Large Intestines
What does the Liver do? Manufactures bile, detoxifies harmful substances, stores vitamins, and makes Thrombin and Fibrinogen
What does the Gallbladder do? Stores bile
What does the Pancreas do? Secretes insulin, produces digestive enzymes; Amalayse, Lipase, and Trypsin
What is inflammation of the Gallbladder called? Cholecytitis
What is inflammation of the stomach lining called? Gastritis
Hepatitis means? Inflammation of the liver
What is inflammation of the Pancreas called? Pancreatitis
What is an occult blood test? Blood in stool
Where is an Ova and Parasites test sent? Microbiology section of Chemistry Department
What is the tube and department for an Ammonia test? Green top to Chemistry. Don't forget to transport on ICE!
Which is the primary filtering organ of the Urinary system? Kidneys
What is the main filtering unit of the Kidneys? Nephrons
After the Nephrons, waste then travels to the _________________, inside this, the blood vessels get smaller and the tiny tufts of capillaries are called the ________ which make it possible to filter waste Glomerular Capsule (Bowmans Capsule), Glomerulus
What do the Renal tubules do? Where what is needed by the body gets absorbed back into the bloodstream
From the kidneys, urine travels down the _______ and into the ______ Ureters, Bladder
The Urethra is..? How urine leaves the body
What are Renal Calculi? Kidney Stones
What is External Respiration? The actual act of breathing and getting the needed oxygen to the tissue cells
What is Internal Respiration? Exchange of gases between the tissue cells and the blood
Which is the main organ of your respiratory system? Lungs
What is the glottis and epiglottis? Glottis is the slit in the larynx; Epiglottis is the flap of skin that covers the larynx during swallowing
Which structure of the respiratory system splits into smaller tubes which extend to each lung? Trachea
What are the Bronchi? Two man branches if the Trachea that go into the lungs
What are the smaller divisions of the Bronchi called? Bronchioles
What is the name of the hollow sacs at the end of the Bronchioles where gas exchange takes place? Alveoli
What is the partial pressure of oxygen? How high hemoglobin is in the lungs, and how low carbon dioxide is in the lungs
What is the Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide? how low hemoglobin is in the lungs
What is Apnea A temporary cessation of breathing
What is Asthma? difficulty breathing accompanied by wheezing, caused by spasm or swelling in bronchioles
What is Emphysema? chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
What is Hypoxia? Deficiency of oxygen
What is Pulmonary Edema? Accumulation of fluid in the lungs
What is the Endocardium? Inner layer of the heart
What is the Myocardium? Middle layer of the heart
What is the Epicardium? Outer layer of heart where Coronary arteries are located.
What do the coronary arteries do? Supply the heart with oxygenated blood
What is the sac that holds the Heart in place? Pericardium
What does the Right Atrium do? Receives deoxygenated blood from the Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
After the right atrium the deoxygenated blood flows through the..? Tricuspid (Atrioventricular) Valve
After the Tricuspid (AV) valve, the deoxygenated blood moves to the..? Right Ventricle.
from the R Ventricle, the deoxygenated blood moves through the _____ and into the ______. Pulmonary valve, Pulmonary artery
The pulmonary artery brings the deoxygenated blood where? And what happens there? Lungs. The exchange of gases occurs. Blood becomes oxygenated, and leaves Carbon Dioxide
The Oxygenated blood enters the ______ through the ________ Left Atrium, Pulmonary Veins
From the L Atrium, the oxygenated blood moves through the ______ and into the ______ Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve, Left Ventricle
From the L Ventricle, the oxygenated blood moves through the _____ and into the _____ Aortic Valve, Aorta
From the Aorta, blood then goes where? To the rest of the body
The Pulmonary Artery is the only artery that transports what? deoxygenated blood
The Pulmonary Veins are the only veins in the body that transports what? Oxygenated blood
Which is the biggest artery in the body? Aorta
Which is the largest vein in the body? Superior/Inferior Vena Cava
Define Systole Ventricular Contraction, Atria are filling with blood and blood is being forced into the pulmonic and aortic valves. BP is higher, and is top number on BP
Define Diastole Ventricular relaxation. Ventricles fill with blood, BP is at its lowest and is the bottom number on a BP
What is the Sinoatrial Node? (SA Node) Body's pacemaker, located in the right atrium, and starts the electrical impulse that spreads throughout the heart and will eventually cause ventricles to contract
After the SA Node, the impulses are then picked up by.? The Atrioventricular (AV) node
After the AV Node, the Impulse travels to the ___________ and then to the little bundle of fibers that branch off that called the ___________ Bundle of His, Purkinje Fibers
Both the Bundle of His and the purkinje Fibers are located where? They curve around up towards the Ventricles
What is a Myocardial Infarction? Heart attack
Why do arteries have thick walls? To withstand the pressure from the contraction of the ventricles
Which artery is used to measure a Blood Pressure? Brachial
Which artery is used to find a pulse? Radial
What are arteries that join with capillaries called? Arterioles
Veins transport what? Deoxygenated blood
What is the longest vein in the body? Great Saphenous, from the groin to the lower leg
When a capillary joins to a vein it is called? Venules
What do the capillaries do? Where the exchange of gases and nutrients take place.
How thin are capillaries? only 1 cell thick
What is the Tunica Adventitia or Tunica Externa? The outer layer of a vessel
What is the middle layer of a vessel called? Tunica media
What is the Tunica intima? The inner layer of a vessel
The difference between arteries and veins is Veins have valves to keep the blood flowing in one direction and Arteries do not
What is an Embolism? obstruction by a clot
What is an Embolus A circulating clot
What percent of blood are the formed elements? 45%
What percent of the blood is the plasma and what does it contain? 55% 7% proteins, 91% water, and 2% other solutes
What is an Erythrocyte? A Red Blood Cell (RBC)
What is an Erythrocytes primary function? Transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the bod, and remove carbon dioxide
Immature RBC's are called _______ and contain a _______ Reticulocyte, nucleus
Which type of formed element is the most numerous of the formed elements? Red Blood Cells
What does hemoglobin do? a protien that gives the RBC's their color, and carries the oxygen
What is a Leukocyte? A White Blood Cell (WBC)
Which type of WBC is the most numerous type that numbers increase during bacterial infections? Neutrophils
There are 2 types of Lymphocytes, what are they and what do they do? B-Cell- produces antibodies, T-Cell- fighter cells that attack infected cells
Which is the largest of the WBC's and numbers increase during chronic infections Monocytes
Which WBC's numbers increase during allergies? Eosinophils
Which WBC's numbers increase during allergic reactions and inflammatory reactions? Basophils
Another name for platelets is..? Thrombocytes
What do the Thrombocytes do? Clotting cells
For a person with Type A blood, which antigen and which antibodies does it contain and where? RBC has the A antigen, plasma contains the anti-b antibody
For a person with Type B blood, which antigen and which antibodies does it contain and where? RBC has the B antigen, plasma contains the anti-a antibody
For a person with Type AB blood, which antigen and which antibodies does it contain and where? RBC has both A and B antigens, plasma has neither A nor B antibodies
For a person with Type O blood, which antigen and which antibodies does it contain and where? RBC has no antigens, plasma contains both A and B antibodies
Which blood type is the universal donor? Type O
Which blood type is the universal receiver? Type AB
What does the D-Antigen determine? the Rh factor
Where do you find serum? Its the liquid portion of a clotted specimen
Where do you find plasma It is the liquid portion of whole blood
Which disorder is characterized by abnormal reduction in the number of RBC's in the circulating blood? Anemia
What is Polycythemia? An abnormal increase in RBC's
What is Thrombocytopenia? a decreased number of platelets
Define Hemostasis the controlling of blood
The first stage of hemostasis is Primary Hemostasis, what happens here? Vasoconstriction, the damaged vessel will constrict or narrow to slow the flow of blood
Stage 2 of hemostasis is called platelet plug formation, what happens here? When a vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and release a chemical that causes aggregation, then platelets stick together and adhere to the injured area
Stage 3 of hemostasis is called Secondary hemostasis (Fibron clot formation) What happens here? Clots are formed from a protein called Fibrin, fibrin then turns to fibrinogen, from the enzyme thrombin, also needed is calcium, which acts as a glue to hold the fibrin to eachother and form a loose mesh work. This stabilized mesh will trap RBC's
Created by: 1086900246