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Ophthalmology

The Anatomy of the Eye

QuestionAnswer
Each eye is located within an orbit
A layer of this cushions and protects the eye. fat
These upper and lower structures protect the delicate tissues of the eye. eyelids
These form a protective barrier that extends outward from the eye to catch foreign substances before they come in contact with the eye. eyelashes
The red, triangular tisse at the medial corner where the eyelids meet is called the caruncle
This gland is located in the superior-lateral aspect of each eye. lacrimal
The lacrimal glands continuously secrete tears that travel through the lacrimal ducts
The tears flow into the lacrimal sac
After the tears flow into the lacrimal sac they then flow into this duct. nasolacrimal
The delicate, transparent mucous membrane that covers the insides of the eyelids and the anterior surface of the eye is called the conjunctiva
This is called the "white of the eye". sclera
This structure allows light to enter the eye. cornea
The colored part of your eye is called the iris
In bright light, muscles in the iris contract to constrict and decrease the diamater of the pupil. This process is known as miosis
In dim light, muscles in the iris relax to dilate and increase the diameter of the pupil. This process is called mydriasis
Eye color is determined by genetics
The spongy membrane of blood vessels that is part of the internal structure of the eye is called choroid
The extension of the choroid that holds the lens in place behind the iris is called the ciliary body
The clear, flexible disk behind the pupil is called the lens
The lens of the eye is surrounded by the lens capsule
The process by which the lens changes shape is called accomodation
The small space between the cornea and the iris is called the anterior chamber
The very narrow space posterior to the iris is called the posterior chamber
The clear, watery fluid that is produced continuously by the ciliary body is called aqueous humor
The largest space in the eye is the posterior cavity
The clear, gel-like substance that helps maintian the shape of the eye is called vitreous humor
The geneal word for the retina is the fundus
The thin layer of tissue that lines the curved posterior wall of the eye is the retina
The bright, yellow-white circle with sharp edges in the are of the retina closest to the nose is called the optic disk
The optic disk is where this structure enters the eye. optic nerve
The optic disk is also known as the blind spot
The dark yellow,orange area behind the optic disk is the macula
The small depression in the center of the macula is the fovea
Light rays entering the pupil fall on the macula
These muscles control the movement of the eye. extraocular
The extraocular muscles are attached to the sclera by tendons
The retina contains special light-sensitive cells known as rods and cones
Rods detect black and white but not color
Cones are only sensitive to color
This combining form means "before; front part" anter/o
The combining form means"to adapt" accommod/o
This combining form means "watery substance" aque/o
This combining form means "choroid (middle layer around the eye) choroid/o
This combining form means "hairlike structure' cili/o
This combining form means "ciliary body (of the eye); circle; cycle" cycl/o
This combining form means "conjunctiva" conjunctiv/o
The combining forms "corne/o and kerat/o" both mean cornea
The combining forms "ocul/o, opt/o, and ophthalm/o" all mean eye
The combining form "blephar/o" means eyelid
The combining form that means "small depressed area" is fove/o
The combining forms "fund/o and fundu/o" both mean fundus
The combining forms "irid/o and ir/o" both mean iris
The combining form "lacrim/o" means tears
This combining form means "before; front part" anter/o
The combining form means"to adapt" accommod/o
This combining form means "watery substance" aque/o
This combining form means "choroid (middle layer around the eye) choroid/o
This combining form means "hairlike structure' cili/o
This combining form means "ciliary body (of the eye); circle; cycle" cycl/o
This combining form means "conjunctiva" conjunctiv/o
The combining forms "corne/o and kerat/o" both mean cornea
The combining forms "ocul/o, opt/o, and ophthalm/o" all mean eye
The combining form "blephar/o" means eyelid
The combining form that means "small depressed area" is fove/o
The combining forms "fund/o and fundu/o" both mean fundus
The combining forms "irid/o and ir/o" both mean iris
The combining form "lacrim/o" means tears
The combining form that means "lacrimal sac; tears" is dacry/o
The combining forms "lenticul/o, lent/o, phac/o and phak/o" all mean lens
The combining form "capsul/o" means capsule
The combining form that means "small area or spot" is macul/o
The combining form "mi/o" means narrowing
The combining form "mydr/o" means widening
The combining form "nas/o" means nose
The combining form that means "back part" is poster/o
The combining form that means "hollow space" is cav/o
The combining forms "pupill/o and cor/o" mean pupil
The combining form "retin/o" means retina
The combining form that means "hard; sclera" is scler/o
The combining form that means "three dimensions" is stere/o
The combining form that means "to examine with an instrument" is scop/o
The combining form that means "sight; vision" is vis/o
The combining form that means "transparent substance; vitreous humor" is vitre/o
The conditiion of "inflammation or infection of the eyelid" is called blepharitis
Drooping of the upper eyelid is called blepharoptosis
Weakening of the connective tissue in the lower eyelid is called ectropion
The suffix that means "state of prolapse; drooping; falling" is -ptosis
The weakening of the muscle in the lower eyelid is called entropion
The medical term for "sty" is hordoleum
If the sty becomes inflamed a semisolid cyst it is called a chalazion
A bacterial infection of the lacrimal sac is called dacryocystitis
Insufficient production of tears resulting in eye irritation is called xerophthalmia
Inflamed, reddened, and swollen conjunctiva is called conjunctivitis
The common name for conjunctivitis is pink eye
The combining form "xer/o" means dry
The pfefix that means "in; within; inward" is en-
Pronounced outward bulging of the anterior surface of the eye is called exophthalmos
Yellow coloration of the conjunctivae is called icterus
Unequal sizes of the pupils is called anisocoria
Increased intraocular pressure in the eye is called glaucoma
Blood in the anterior chamber of the eye due to trauma or increased pressure is called hyphema
Abnormal sensitivity to bright light is called photophobia
Inflammation or infection of the uveal tract in the eye is called uveitis
The combining form "phot/o" means light
The combining form that means "fear; avoidance" is phob/o
Condition in which the lens of the eye has been surgically removed is called aphakia
Clouding in the lenses of the eyes is called cataract
The combining form "presby/o" means old age
Loss of flexibility of the lens with blurry near vision caused by aging is called presbyopia
The prefix that means "within" is intra-
The combining form that means "silver grey" is glauc/o
The combining form "anis/o" means unequal
The combining form "icter/o" means jaundice
The combining form "ulcerat/o" means ulcer
The combining form that means "scrape off" is abras/o
A chronic progressive condition of the eye in people with diabetes is called diabetic retinopathy
Clumps, dots, or strings of collagen molecules that form in the vitreous humor because of aging are called floaters
Chronic, progressive loss of central vision is called macular degeneration
Marked decrease in visual acuity at night or in dim light is called night blindness
Inflammation and edema of the optic disk caused by increased intracranial pressure is called papilledema
The combining form that means "elevated structure" is papill/o
The suffix that means "swelling" is -edema
The combining form "ne/o" means new
The suffix that means "disease; suffering" is -pathy
Cancerous tumor of the retina in children is called retinoblastoma
The combining form "matur/o" means mature
The combining form that means "growth; formation" is plas/o
The combining form that means "immature; embryonic" is blast/o
Involuntary, rhythmic motions of the eye is called nystagmus
The medical term for the condition commonly known as "cross-eye" is strabismus
The combining form that means "point; mark" is stigmat/o
A vision condition in which the patient's vision is blurry both near and at a distance is called astigmatism
The medical term for "farsightedness" is hyperopia
The medical term for "nearsightedness" is myopia
The medical term for the condition commonly known as "lazy eye" is amblyopia
Double vision is called diplopia
Temporary or permanent visual field defect in one or both eyes is called scotoma
The combining form "scot/o" means darkness
The combining form "dipl/o" means double
The combining form "ambly/o" means dimness
The combining form "myop/o" means near
The suffix that means "condtion of vision" is -opia
The prefix that means "one-half" is hemi-
Plastic surgery to remove fat and sagging skin form the eyelids is called blehpharoplasty
The procedure to remove the eye from the orbit is called enucleation
Created by: GKSMS97