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Chapter 5 phlebotomy

the heart

QuestionAnswer
circulatory system means by which oxygen and food are carried to the cells of the body and also carbon dioxide and other wastes are carried away from the cells to the excretory systems and aids in teh coagulation process, defends the body against disease
pericardium the heart is surrounded by a thin fluid filled sac
septa/ septum the right and left chambers are separated from each other by partions
Heart four chambered hollow muscular organ, slightly larger than a mans closed fist
epicardidum thin outer layer of the heart
myocardium the middle muscule layer of the heart
endocardium the thin inner layer of the heart
right atrium (upper right) receives deoxygenated bloodf rom the heart via the vena cava and pumps to right ventricle
right ventricle (lower right) receives blood from the right atrium and pums it into the pulmoanry arter which carries it to the lungs to be oxygenated
left atrium (upper left) receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it into the left ventricle
left ventricle (lower left) pumps it into the aorta. the walls are nearly three times as thick as the tother ventricleowing to the force required to pump the blood to the arterial system
atrioventricular valves valves at the entrance to the vetricles
chordae tendineae AV are attached to the walls of the ventricles by thing threads of tissue
semilunar valves valves that exit the ventricles
coronary arteries recieves its blood supply via the right and left ... that branche off the aorta
ischemia partial obstruction of a coronary artery or one of its branches can reduce blood flow toa point where it si not adequate to meed the oxygen needs of the heart muscle
mycardial infarction complete obstruction or prolonged ischemia also called heart attach because of necrosis of the surrounding tissue from lack of oxygen
cardiac cycle one complete contraction and subsequent relation of the heart lassts about 0.8 seconds
systole contracting phase of the cardiac cycle
diastole the relaxing phase of the cardiac cycle
electrical conduciton system SA node, internodal pathway fibers, AV node, AV bundle(bundle of His)
SA node or sinoatrial begins heart beat sends the pulses to contract simultaneously and push blood through the atrioventricular valves into the ventricles
internodal pathway fibers relay the impulse to the AV node
AV node or atrioventricular picks up the impulse, slows it down while the atria finish contracting and then relatis it through the AV bundle
AV bundle relays impulse throughout the ventricular walls by means of bundale branches and Purkinje fibers. THis causes the ventricles to contract, forcing blood through the semilunar valves
electrocardiogram an actual record of the electrical currents that correspond to each event in heart muscle contraction
lubb vetricles contract the atrioventricular valves close, resulting in the first heart sound: a long,low pitched should commonlly described as a ...
dupp second sound comes at the beginning of ventricular relaxation and is due to the closing of the semilunar valves. shorter and sharper
murmurs abnormal heart sounds
heart rate number of heart beats per minute
arrhythmia irregularity in teh heart rate, rhyth, or beat
bradycardia slow rate, less than 60 beats per minute
tachycardia fast rate, over 100 beats per minute
extrasystoles extra beats
fibrillation rapid, uncoordinated contractions
pulse the palpable rhythmic throbbing caused by the alternating expansion and contraction of an artery as a wave of blood passes through
blood pressure the measure of force exerted by the blood on th ealls of the blood vessels.
sphygmomanometer blood pressure cuff
systolic pressure pressure in teh arters during contraction of the ventricles
diastolic pressure the arterial pressure during relaxation of the ventricles
angina pectoris/ ischemic heart disease (IHD) pain on exetion, caused by inadequate blood flow to the myocardium from the coronary arteries
aortic stenosis narrowing of the aorta or its opening
bacterial endocarditis an infection of the lining of the heart, most commonly caused by streptococci
CHF impaired circulation caused by inadequate pumping of a diseased heart resulting in fluid buildup in the lungs or other tissues
MI heart attack or death of heart muscle due to obstruction of a coronary artery
mycardial ischemia insufficient blood flow to meet the needs of the heart muscle
pericarditis inflamation of the pericardium
when a person has a heart attack then the enzymes CK and AST are released
Heart tests ABGs, AST or SGOT, cholestrol, CK, CK-MB, Digoxin, ECG or EKG, LD isoenzymes, microbial cultures myoglobin, K, triglycerides, TnT
Created by: nyborsmis
 

 



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