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Human Geography chp1

Human Geography chapter 1

Human Geography One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
Globalization The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales.
Physical geography One of the two major discussions of systematic geography' the spatial analysis of the structure, processes and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals and topography.
Spatial distribution Physical location of geographic phenomena across space.
Pattern The design of a spatial distribution (scattered or concentrated)
Medical geography The study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective. Among other things, medical geography looks at sources, diffusion routes, and distributions of diseases.
Pandemic An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.
endemic A disease that is particular to a locality or region.
spatial perspective Physical location of geographic phenomena across space.
location theory a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. The agricultural location theory contained in the von Thunen modelis a leading example.
sense of place state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
Perceptions of places Belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures.
movement The fifth theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project.
spatial interaction a condition that exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other's demands. Also, the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther
distances measurement of the physical space between two places
accessibility the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations. accessibility varies from place to place and can be measured.
connectivity the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network.
landscape the overall appearance of an area. Most landscapees are comprised of a combination of natural and human-induced influences.
cultural landscape The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
sequent occupance The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultrual landscape.
cartography the art and science of making maps, including data compilation, layout and design, Also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns.
reference maps maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude.
thematic maps maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon.
absolute location the position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, and longitude
Global Positioning system satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features.
geocaching A hunt for a cache, the Global Positioning System coordinates which are places on the Internet by other geocachers
relative location The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places. Distance, accessibility, and connectivity affect relative location.
Mental maps Image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space.
activity spaces The space within which daily activity occurs.
Generalized map maps that show how much or how little of some phenomena can be found on a part of the Earth's surface.
Remote sensing a method of collecting data or informatino through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
Geographic Information Systems A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
Formal region A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region.
functional region a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it.
perceptual regions a region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity. For example, in the United States, "the South" and the "Midwest" are perceptual regions.
culture complex A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
Cultural hearth Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
culture trait A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
Independent invention The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other.
Culture diffusion The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.
Time distance decay The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
cultural barriers Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.
expansion diffusion The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
Contagious diffusion The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person- analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
Hierarchical diffusion A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples.
stimulus diffusion A form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place.
relocation diffusion Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of new by migrating people.
Environmental determinism The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development.
Isotherms line on a map connecting points of equal temperature values.
possibilism viewpoint- a response to determinism that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development. also possibilists view the environment as providing a set of broad constraints that limits human choice
Cultural ecology The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.
Political ecology An approach to studying nature- society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environment issues both reflect and are the result of the political socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated.
Created by: mrsdudek
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