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western civ final

western civ-tastic

QuestionAnswer
Thomas More author of Utopia
Erasmus wrote In Praise of Folly, Dutch, Christian humanist
Gutenberg creator of the printing press
Martin Luther protested the Church and demanded reforms
Charles V Holy Roman emperor
Edict of Worms declared that Luther was a heretic and an outlaw, no one in the entire empire was to give him food or shelter. All of his books were to be burned.
Reformation religious crisis in the Roman Catholic Church
Protestant Christians who, seeking change, turned away from the papacy and the Catholic Church
Predestination God already knows where you’re going
Theocracy government run by the Church
Counter-Reformation The wave of reform in the Catholic Church in the 1500’s
Ignatius Loyola born 1491, became religious after an injury handicapped him for months,
Council of Trent 1545 Catholic Bishops and Cardinals met in Trent and decided that Martin Luther was wrong
Battle of Lepanto 10/7/1571 SpanishVenetian vs. Ottoman Turks SpanishVenetian won
Philip II Charles V’s son, ruled Spain from 1556 to 1598
Peace of Augsburg the religion of each German state was to be decided by its ruler
Ferdinand II king of Czech, Austrian, Catholic, cousin of Philip II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1619
Thirty Years’ War war between German Protestant princes and the Hapsburg Family
joint-stock company a special organization to attract capital from many people
Elizabeth I Henry VIII’s third child to rule, halfsister of Mary Tudor, ruled from 1558 to 1603
Mary Stuart Elizabeth I’s Catholic cousin, Queen of Scots
Philip II ruler of Spain, had been married to Mary Tudor, she died he wanted to marry Elizabeth
Francis Drake greatest sea dog, won 600,000 pounds, dubbed a knight by Queen Elizabeth
Puritan men and women who wished to purify the Church of England of practices that they thought were too close to Catholicism.
divine right the theory that royal power came from God
James I son of Mary Stuart, nearest relative of Elizabeth I, king of Scotland and England
King James Bible published 1611, poetic, Protestant,
Charles I son of James I
Petition of Right king would not imprison subjects without due cause, he would not force loans or levy taxes without the consent of Parliament, would not house soldiers in private homes without the owners’ consent, would not imp ose martial law in peacetime
William Laud archbishop and leader of the Church of England, loved ceremonies and rich robes, “secret Catholic”
Cavalier Royalists loyal to King Charles, English nobles and church officials, long hair
Roundhead Puritan townspeople and merchants who supported Parliament, short hair
Oliver Cromwell found in 1644, military genius, Roundhead
New Model Army military machine lead by Oliver Cromwell,
absolute monarchy having complete power
Charles II Charles I’s son, Prince Charles Stuart, May 1660 he restored the monarchy and ruled from 1660 to 1685
Restoration 1660 1685 the period of Charles II’s rule
William and Mary Mary was James’ first wife’s daughter and was a protestant, William of Orange was a powerful Protestant price of the Netherlands
Glorious Revolution William and Mary were invited to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. In November of 1688 William led his army to London and James fled. Bloodless Revolution
Thomas Hobbes author of Leviathan in 1651, all humans were naturally wicked, absolute monarchy is best
John Locke more positive view than Hobbes, people had the gift of reason, published Treatises on Government
absolutism rule by monarchs with unlimited power
mercantilism a country’s economic strength rested on certain conditions
Louis XIV ruled from 1643 to 1715, most powerful monarch in French history
Fronde the violent riots against Mazarin
Hapsburg family from Austria who wanted to take advantage of central Europe’s power vacuum
Hohenzollern family from north Germany who wanted to take advantage of central Europe’s power vacuum
Pragmatic Sanction agreement that recognized Charles’s only child as the heir to all his Hapsburg territories.
Great Elector Frederick William, Hohenzollern, made lots of money being diplomatic
Frederick I Great Elector’s son, king
Frederick William I Frederick I’s son, loved only his army,
Frederick the Great son of Frederick William I, ran away at age 18, hated his dad, followed lots of his policies when he came to throne in 1740
Maria Theresa inherited the Hapsburg throne in 1740, patron of Vienna’s culture, reformed the imperial government
laissez-faire leave alone
Smith Scottish professor who was champion of economic liberty
Montesquieu champion of political liberty from France
Rousseau Swiss commoner who was champion of political liberty
enlightened despotism favoring religious tolerance, making economic and legal reforms, and justifying their rule by its usefulness to society rather than by divine right.
Cabinet executive committee that acts in the ruler’s name but in reality represents the majority party in Parliament
Prime minister the leader of the majority party in Parliament who heads the cabinet
constitutional monarchy the power of the ruler is limited by law
Frederick II Prussia’s most enlightened despot, absolute ruler who used his power for the good of the people
Catherine II Russia’s most enlightened despot, absolute ruler who used her power for the good of the people
George I spoke no English cared more about Hanover than England ruled 1714-1727
Robert Walpole unofficial ruler of Great Britain, First Lord of Treasury
George III ruler of Great Britain
The Navigation Acts colonists could not sell their most valuable products to any country except Britain, colonists could not buy French or Dutch goods without paying high taxes on them
The Stamp Acts colonists had to pay a tax to have an official stamp put on wills, deeds, and other legal documents. Newspapers and other printed material had to be stamped too.
bourgeoisie city-dwelling middle class
sansculottes those who are without knee breeches; urban workers
corvée a form of tax that was paid with work rather than money
July 14, 1789 Parisians rioted at Bastille, first stage of the revolution
Bastille French fortress where the Parisians rioted/revolted
Louis XVI king of France 1774, very weak leadership skills
Old Regime the old institutions of monarchy and feudalism that no longer worked for France
Estates General the meeting of the three estates; very similar to English Parliament
Marie Antoinette wife of Louis XVI,
National Assembly the third estate, lead by Abbe Sieyes
Great Fear the fear of a plot against the common people
coup a seizure of political power by the military
plebiscite an election in which all citizens vote yes or no on an issue
concordat agreement
Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power from 17951799, very powerful
Napoleonic Code comprehensive code of laws written from 18011804
Austerlitz on the first anniversary of his coronation as emperor, Napoleon won his greatest victory at Austerlitz. Commanding 73,000 French troops, he smashed an army of 87,000 Russians and Austrians, took 20,000 prisoners, left 15,000 enemy dead on the field, and
Horatio Nelson commander of the British fleet, “as brilliant in warfare at sea as Napoleon was on land.
Trafalgar in his war against the Third Coalition, Napoleon lost only one major battle, the Battle of Trafalgar. 1805 off the southern coast of Spain.
Industrial Revolution 1700-1850ish new machines invented, lots of progress in society started in Britain spread to throughout America and Europe
Enclosure wealthy English landowners would buy large plots of land and enclose them in hedges and start commercial farms
Crop rotation some crops fertilize the ground so different crops for every season and you rotate between them
Entrepreneur a person who initiates or finances new commercial enterprises
Industrialize become industrial; factories, companies, cities
Union a group of workers joined together for a common goal
Jethro Tull British guy who invented seed drill in 1721
James Hargreaves British guy who invented spinning jenny in 1764
Edmund Cartwright British guy who invented power loom in 1785
James Watt Scottish guy who invented steam engine in 1769
Richard Trevithick British guy who invented steam locomotive in 1804
George Stephenson British guy who helped invent steam locomotive in 1804
conservative people who want to conserve or restore the old order, opposed political change
liberal groups who favored moderate change
radical groups that favored more drastic changes
romanticism a combined focuse on emotions, nature, and the individual with nostalgia for the past.
Congress of Vienna after Napoleon’s final defeat in 1815, delegates from the major nations of Europe met in Vienna to deal with the aftermath
Klemens von Metternich leader of the Congress of Vienna, Austrian foreign minister
Reform Bill of 1832 in Great Britain, Parliament in 1832 passed a major Reform Bill. It gave full political rights to most men of the middle class, though still less than 20 percent of male citizens. The bill also provided for representation from new cities such as Manchest
Louis Philippe a member of royalty who was willing to accept reforms
Louis Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew who dissolved the Chamber of Deputies and declared himself emperor
stock shares of ownership
corporation businesses organized under charters from the government
emigration the permanent movement from once country to another
socialism state ownership of the means of production such as factories and mine to spread the wealth
proletariat workers
scientific socialism violent revolution of workers to overthrow the owners of the means of production
communism violent revolution of workers to overthrow the owners of the means of production
suffrage the right to vote
realpolitik a strategy of political realism that combined diplomacy with armed force
Suez Canal opened 1869 linked the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Reduced the distance from Britain to India by 6,000 mils and travel time by a month
Karl Marx preached drastic change through violent revolution by masses of workers, ideas became known as scientific socialism or communism. Wrote Communist Manifesto
Charles Dickens British realist writer
Camillo di Cavour prime minister of Sardinia
Otto von Bismarck the leader of the movement for German unification
militarism the idea that the use of force was an acceptable way to decide political problems
mobilize prepare for war
neutrality not taking sides
total war a war in which all human and economic resources were used to support the war effort
propaganda information chosen to portray a government’s point of view
armistice an agreement to end fighting
self-determination the right of nationalist groups to form their own countries and governments
reparations payments for damages
mandate territories to administer under the supervision of the League of Nations
Kaiser William II 1890 changed Germany’s foreign policy by forcing Bismarck to resign, aimed to continue the Prussian tradition of military power, under his rule, Germany developed Europe’s largest and most modern army and a navy second only to that of Britain. Abandoned
Triple Alliance Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary. Germany and Austria would protect Italy if France was to be attacked. Also, Italy would aid Germany in case France attacked. Italy would be neutral if anybody went to war with Austria. If France and Russia attacked any o
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Allied Powers France, Russia
Battle of the Marne following the Battle of Marne, the war entered a three-year stalemate
Woodrow Wilson President of United States, wanted peace based on Fourteen Points, self-determination, reducing armaments, secret treaties, adjusting colonial claims. Wanted League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles punished Germany, Germany had to surrender 13 percent of its territory, Alsace and Lorraine to France and other areas to Belgium, Denmark, and Poland. Overseas colonies went to Britain and France as mandates. Germany was forced to disarm and to end prod
autocracy absolute rule
abdicate give up the throne
soviet workers’ council
command economy one in which the government managed the whole economy and organized it to achieve the goals of the state
collective farm giant, government owned farms
totalitarian a place where an absolute dictator and oneparty government controlled all aspects of life
Decembrists a group of army officers who led a revolt after Alexander’s death in 1825
Nicholas II coronation was in 1894, “I shall maintain the principle of autocracy.” Lots of growth
TransSiberian Railway foreign investment aided in it’s construction, 1904 it connected European Russia with Russian ports on the Pacific. Longest railway in the world
Duma parliament created by Nicholas II, most members of the Duma were moderates who wanted a constitution, Nicholas dissolved the Duma within three months of its creation
Lenin Social Democrat, sought revolution worldwide
Mensheviks led by Lenin, wanted to delay revolution until Russia industrialized
Bolsheviks wanted an immediate revolution, led by a small but determined group of extreme radicals who would set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat.”
Rasputin a peasant who claimed to be a holy man, Rasputin had gained influence with the rulers by seeming to cure their son of a dangerous disease. Rasputin opposed reform and spread corruption at the royal court. His evil influence ended with his murder in 1916
Alexander Kerensky a moderate socialist who revived the Duma as a provisional government. A member of the workers’ council or the soviet in St. Petersburg
Treaty of Brest Litovsk the Bolshevik government signed with Germany in March 1918. Russia gave up one fourth of its European territory to Germany, along with many of its mines and factories
Communist party Bolsheviks renamed their party the Communist party, came from Karl Marx’s writings
Trotsky revolutionary leader of the Bolshevik Red Army
Cheka Bolshevik secret police
New Economic Policy began in 1921 by Lenin, combined elements of capitalism with the Bolshevik’s state socialism
Stalin head of the Communist party, took control of Russia in 1924 when Lenin died, 1929 he forced Trotsky into exile and gained power
FiveYear Plan plans made by Stalin to improve industry and agriculture
nonaggression pact august 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union announced a tenyear nonaggression pact pledging not to attack each other
blitzkrieg Germany’s sudden, massive attack meaning “lightning war”, using fastmoving weapons of modern war
underground secret resistance movement
Polish Corridor a strip of land cut from Germany after World War I to give Poland access to the sea
Luftwaffe the German air force
Winston Churchill the successor to Neville Chamberlain who came into power in May 1940, very against Hitler, had “nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat.”
Maginot Line an elaborate set of fortifications along the German border of France
Dunkirk port on the English Channel where 338,000 soldiers were rescued by civilian boaters
Vichy Regime Pétain’s government, overtime became closer with the Nazi’s
Free French underground formed by Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle French General who formed Free French,
RAF Britain’s Royal Air Force
Lend-Lease Act March 1941, a program to lend and lease supplies to all countries fighting against aggressors
Guadal-canal in the Solomon Islands, July 1942 to February 1943. The Allied Powers vs. the Japanese
Chester W. Nimitz commander in chief of the Pacific fleet
Battle of Midway June 3, 1942, Allied forces took out the Japanese navy and Hawaii was never seriously threatened again
Maginot Line an elaborate set of fortifications along the German border of France
Thomas More author of Utopia
Erasmus wrote In Praise of Folly, Dutch, Christian humanist
Gutenberg creator of the printing press
Martin Luther protested the Church and demanded reforms
Charles V Holy Roman emperor
Edict of Worms declared that Luther was a heretic and an outlaw, no one in the entire empire was to give him food or shelter. All of his books were to be burned.
Reformation religious crisis in the Roman Catholic Church
Protestant Christians who, seeking change, turned away from the papacy and the Catholic Church
Predestination God already knows where you’re going
Theocracy government run by the Church
Counter-Reformation The wave of reform in the Catholic Church in the 1500’s
Ignatius Loyola born 1491, became religious after an injury handicapped him for months,
Council of Trent 1545 Catholic Bishops and Cardinals met in Trent and decided that Martin Luther was wrong
Battle of Lepanto 10/7/1571 SpanishVenetian vs. Ottoman Turks SpanishVenetian won
Philip II Charles V’s son, ruled Spain from 1556 to 1598
Peace of Augsburg the religion of each German state was to be decided by its ruler
Ferdinand II king of Czech, Austrian, Catholic, cousin of Philip II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1619
Thirty Years’ War war between German Protestant princes and the Hapsburg Family
joint-stock company a special organization to attract capital from many people
Elizabeth I Henry VIII’s third child to rule, halfsister of Mary Tudor, ruled from 1558 to 1603
Mary Stuart Elizabeth I’s Catholic cousin, Queen of Scots
Philip II ruler of Spain, had been married to Mary Tudor, she died he wanted to marry Elizabeth
Francis Drake greatest sea dog, won 600,000 pounds, dubbed a knight by Queen Elizabeth
Puritan men and women who wished to purify the Church of England of practices that they thought were too close to Catholicism.
divine right the theory that royal power came from God
James I son of Mary Stuart, nearest relative of Elizabeth I, king of Scotland and England
King James Bible published 1611, poetic, Protestant,
Charles I son of James I
Petition of Right king would not imprison subjects without due cause, he would not force loans or levy taxes without the consent of Parliament, would not house soldiers in private homes without the owners’ consent, would not imp ose martial law in peacetime
William Laud archbishop and leader of the Church of England, loved ceremonies and rich robes, “secret Catholic”
Cavalier Royalists loyal to King Charles, English nobles and church officials, long hair
Roundhead Puritan townspeople and merchants who supported Parliament, short hair
Oliver Cromwell found in 1644, military genius, Roundhead
New Model Army military machine lead by Oliver Cromwell,
absolute monarchy having complete power
Charles II Charles I’s son, Prince Charles Stuart, May 1660 he restored the monarchy and ruled from 1660 to 1685
Restoration 1660 1685 the period of Charles II’s rule
William and Mary Mary was James’ first wife’s daughter and was a protestant, William of Orange was a powerful Protestant price of the Netherlands
Glorious Revolution William and Mary were invited to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. In November of 1688 William led his army to London and James fled. Bloodless Revolution
Thomas Hobbes author of Leviathan in 1651, all humans were naturally wicked, absolute monarchy is best
John Locke more positive view than Hobbes, people had the gift of reason, published Treatises on Government
absolutism rule by monarchs with unlimited power
mercantilism a country’s economic strength rested on certain conditions
Louis XIV ruled from 1643 to 1715, most powerful monarch in French history
Fronde the violent riots against Mazarin
Hapsburg family from Austria who wanted to take advantage of central Europe’s power vacuum
Hohenzollern family from north Germany who wanted to take advantage of central Europe’s power vacuum
Pragmatic Sanction agreement that recognized Charles’s only child as the heir to all his Hapsburg territories.
Great Elector Frederick William, Hohenzollern, made lots of money being diplomatic
Frederick I Great Elector’s son, king
Frederick William I Frederick I’s son, loved only his army,
Frederick the Great son of Frederick William I, ran away at age 18, hated his dad, followed lots of his policies when he came to throne in 1740
Maria Theresa inherited the Hapsburg throne in 1740, patron of Vienna’s culture, reformed the imperial government
laissez-faire leave alone
Smith Scottish professor who was champion of economic liberty
Montesquieu champion of political liberty from France
Rousseau Swiss commoner who was champion of political liberty
enlightened despotism favoring religious tolerance, making economic and legal reforms, and justifying their rule by its usefulness to society rather than by divine right.
Cabinet executive committee that acts in the ruler’s name but in reality represents the majority party in Parliament
Prime minister the leader of the majority party in Parliament who heads the cabinet
constitutional monarchy the power of the ruler is limited by law
Frederick II Prussia’s most enlightened despot, absolute ruler who used his power for the good of the people
Catherine II Russia’s most enlightened despot, absolute ruler who used her power for the good of the people
George I spoke no English cared more about Hanover than England ruled 1714-1727
Robert Walpole unofficial ruler of Great Britain, First Lord of Treasury
George III ruler of Great Britain
The Navigation Acts colonists could not sell their most valuable products to any country except Britain, colonists could not buy French or Dutch goods without paying high taxes on them
The Stamp Acts colonists had to pay a tax to have an official stamp put on wills, deeds, and other legal documents. Newspapers and other printed material had to be stamped too.
bourgeoisie city-dwelling middle class
sansculottes those who are without knee breeches; urban workers
corvée a form of tax that was paid with work rather than money
July 14, 1789 Parisians rioted at Bastille, first stage of the revolution
Bastille French fortress where the Parisians rioted/revolted
Louis XVI king of France 1774, very weak leadership skills
Old Regime the old institutions of monarchy and feudalism that no longer worked for France
Estates General the meeting of the three estates; very similar to English Parliament
Marie Antoinette wife of Louis XVI,
National Assembly the third estate, lead by Abbe Sieyes
Great Fear the fear of a plot against the common people
coup a seizure of political power by the military
plebiscite an election in which all citizens vote yes or no on an issue
concordat agreement
Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power from 17951799, very powerful
Napoleonic Code comprehensive code of laws written from 18011804
Austerlitz on the first anniversary of his coronation as emperor, Napoleon won his greatest victory at Austerlitz. Commanding 73,000 French troops, he smashed an army of 87,000 Russians and Austrians, took 20,000 prisoners, left 15,000 enemy dead on the field, and
Horatio Nelson commander of the British fleet, “as brilliant in warfare at sea as Napoleon was on land.
Trafalgar in his war against the Third Coalition, Napoleon lost only one major battle, the Battle of Trafalgar. 1805 off the southern coast of Spain.
Industrial Revolution 1700-1850ish new machines invented, lots of progress in society started in Britain spread to throughout America and Europe
Enclosure wealthy English landowners would buy large plots of land and enclose them in hedges and start commercial farms
Crop rotation some crops fertilize the ground so different crops for every season and you rotate between them
Entrepreneur a person who initiates or finances new commercial enterprises
Industrialize become industrial; factories, companies, cities
Union a group of workers joined together for a common goal
Jethro Tull British guy who invented seed drill in 1721
James Hargreaves British guy who invented spinning jenny in 1764
Edmund Cartwright British guy who invented power loom in 1785
James Watt Scottish guy who invented steam engine in 1769
Richard Trevithick British guy who invented steam locomotive in 1804
George Stephenson British guy who helped invent steam locomotive in 1804
conservative people who want to conserve or restore the old order, opposed political change
liberal groups who favored moderate change
radical groups that favored more drastic changes
romanticism a combined focuse on emotions, nature, and the individual with nostalgia for the past.
Congress of Vienna after Napoleon’s final defeat in 1815, delegates from the major nations of Europe met in Vienna to deal with the aftermath
Klemens von Metternich leader of the Congress of Vienna, Austrian foreign minister
Reform Bill of 1832 in Great Britain, Parliament in 1832 passed a major Reform Bill. It gave full political rights to most men of the middle class, though still less than 20 percent of male citizens. The bill also provided for representation from new cities such as Manchest
Louis Philippe a member of royalty who was willing to accept reforms
Louis Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew who dissolved the Chamber of Deputies and declared himself emperor
stock shares of ownership
corporation businesses organized under charters from the government
emigration the permanent movement from once country to another
socialism state ownership of the means of production such as factories and mine to spread the wealth
proletariat workers
scientific socialism violent revolution of workers to overthrow the owners of the means of production
communism violent revolution of workers to overthrow the owners of the means of production
suffrage the right to vote
realpolitik a strategy of political realism that combined diplomacy with armed force
Suez Canal opened 1869 linked the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Reduced the distance from Britain to India by 6,000 mils and travel time by a month
Karl Marx preached drastic change through violent revolution by masses of workers, ideas became known as scientific socialism or communism. Wrote Communist Manifesto
Charles Dickens British realist writer
Camillo di Cavour prime minister of Sardinia
Otto von Bismarck the leader of the movement for German unification
militarism the idea that the use of force was an acceptable way to decide political problems
mobilize prepare for war
neutrality not taking sides
total war a war in which all human and economic resources were used to support the war effort
propaganda information chosen to portray a government’s point of view
armistice an agreement to end fighting
self-determination the right of nationalist groups to form their own countries and governments
reparations payments for damages
mandate territories to administer under the supervision of the League of Nations
Kaiser William II 1890 changed Germany’s foreign policy by forcing Bismarck to resign, aimed to continue the Prussian tradition of military power, under his rule, Germany developed Europe’s largest and most modern army and a navy second only to that of Britain. Abandoned
Triple Alliance Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary. Germany and Austria would protect Italy if France was to be attacked. Also, Italy would aid Germany in case France attacked. Italy would be neutral if anybody went to war with Austria. If France and Russia attacked any o
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Allied Powers France, Russia
Battle of the Marne following the Battle of Marne, the war entered a three-year stalemate
Woodrow Wilson President of United States, wanted peace based on Fourteen Points, self-determination, reducing armaments, secret treaties, adjusting colonial claims. Wanted League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles punished Germany, Germany had to surrender 13 percent of its territory, Alsace and Lorraine to France and other areas to Belgium, Denmark, and Poland. Overseas colonies went to Britain and France as mandates. Germany was forced to disarm and to end prod
autocracy absolute rule
abdicate give up the throne
soviet workers’ council
command economy one in which the government managed the whole economy and organized it to achieve the goals of the state
collective farm giant, government owned farms
totalitarian a place where an absolute dictator and oneparty government controlled all aspects of life
Decembrists a group of army officers who led a revolt after Alexander’s death in 1825
Nicholas II coronation was in 1894, “I shall maintain the principle of autocracy.” Lots of growth
TransSiberian Railway foreign investment aided in it’s construction, 1904 it connected European Russia with Russian ports on the Pacific. Longest railway in the world
Duma parliament created by Nicholas II, most members of the Duma were moderates who wanted a constitution, Nicholas dissolved the Duma within three months of its creation
Lenin Social Democrat, sought revolution worldwide
Mensheviks led by Lenin, wanted to delay revolution until Russia industrialized
Bolsheviks wanted an immediate revolution, led by a small but determined group of extreme radicals who would set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat.”
Rasputin a peasant who claimed to be a holy man, Rasputin had gained influence with the rulers by seeming to cure their son of a dangerous disease. Rasputin opposed reform and spread corruption at the royal court. His evil influence ended with his murder in 1916
Alexander Kerensky a moderate socialist who revived the Duma as a provisional government. A member of the workers’ council or the soviet in St. Petersburg
Treaty of Brest Litovsk the Bolshevik government signed with Germany in March 1918. Russia gave up one fourth of its European territory to Germany, along with many of its mines and factories
Communist party Bolsheviks renamed their party the Communist party, came from Karl Marx’s writings
Trotsky revolutionary leader of the Bolshevik Red Army
Cheka Bolshevik secret police
New Economic Policy began in 1921 by Lenin, combined elements of capitalism with the Bolshevik’s state socialism
Stalin head of the Communist party, took control of Russia in 1924 when Lenin died, 1929 he forced Trotsky into exile and gained power
FiveYear Plan plans made by Stalin to improve industry and agriculture
nonaggression pact august 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union announced a tenyear nonaggression pact pledging not to attack each other
blitzkrieg Germany’s sudden, massive attack meaning “lightning war”, using fastmoving weapons of modern war
underground secret resistance movement
Polish Corridor a strip of land cut from Germany after World War I to give Poland access to the sea
Luftwaffe the German air force
Winston Churchill the successor to Neville Chamberlain who came into power in May 1940, very against Hitler, had “nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat.”
Maginot Line an elaborate set of fortifications along the German border of France
Dunkirk port on the English Channel where 338,000 soldiers were rescued by civilian boaters
Vichy Regime Pétain’s government, overtime became closer with the Nazi’s
Free French underground formed by Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle French General who formed Free French,
RAF Britain’s Royal Air Force
Lend-Lease Act March 1941, a program to lend and lease supplies to all countries fighting against aggressors
Guadal-canal in the Solomon Islands, July 1942 to February 1943. The Allied Powers vs. the Japanese
Chester W. Nimitz commander in chief of the Pacific fleet
Battle of Midway June 3, 1942, Allied forces took out the Japanese navy and Hawaii was never seriously threatened again
Maginot Line an elaborate set of fortifications along the German border of France
Created by: jfull