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Organism environment

1

QuestionAnswer
1a Organism and environment, adaptation continuous interactions between organisms and external environment- body tries to keep constant interval environment (homeostasis) irrespective of external environment parameters via adaptation mechanisms (e.g. thermoregulatory)
1b Organism and environment, adaptation any change of external environment requires resetting of regulatory mechanisms to keep homeostasis- each adaptation mechanism has some capacity (limited)
Adaptation capacity a represents adaptability of the body- can be expressed as a range of external environment parameters within which the particular organism can keep homeostasis (survive)
Adaptation capacity b it is !!!very individual!!! - dependent on:- genetic disposition- age
Adaptation capacity c functional reserve of the body systems responsible for the adaptation to a particular change (dependent on the previous life style - nutrition, physical activity etc.)
Adaptation capacity d extreme (or too quick) changes of the external environment or failure of adaptation mechanism (due to failure of some organ) → change in internal environment (broken homeostasis) → disease
Adaptation capacity e border changes of external environment leading to survival only of individuals with best adaptation facilities are causing natural selection (Darwin theory), when Medicine does not interfere
Adaptation capacity f high external temperature requires thermoregulatory response based on peripheral vasodilation → ↓ BP - to keep adequate BP requires ↑ MV, people with chronic heart failure do not have
Adaptation capacity g sufficient heart reserve→ COLLAPSE (unconsciousness) (typical for old people)
Factors influencing organism a ● not-changeable - genetics, gender, ethnic, age ● changeable - nutrition, life style, personal habits
Factors influencing organism b ● factors from environment - viral and microbial - chemical (toxins, drugs, allergens) - physical (irradiation, temperature, sun exposure, altitude - p02)● psychological factors (family background, stress, religion etc.)
Disease may be dependent:● exclusively on genetic factors without any possibility to influence its appearance: - autosomal dominant (Adult polycystic kidney disease, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Spherocytosis, von Willebrand's disease)- autosomal recessive (Color blindness, Cystic fibrosis, Phenylketonuria)
Disease may be dependent:● exclusively on genetic factors without any possibility to influence its appearance: b - X - linked recessive (Hemophilia, Bruton-type hypogammaglobulinemia, Duchenne's dystrophy)
● largely dependent on environment or life style - Colon cancer - low in developing countries (e.g. Africa), high in "westernized" populations (USA, Europe) - due to different intake of dietary fibers and fat
● largely dependent on environment or life style - Lung cancer - due to smoking (low in Mormons and Seventh day Adventists with code against use of tobacco – but non-smokers also can have lung cancer!!)- Skin cancer - due to ultraviolet light
● largely dependent on environment or life style - Malaria - only in countries with mosquitoes transmitting Plasmodium
● dependent on combination of genetic predisposition and factors of environment or life style influencing manifestation of the disease most frequent case- early coronary heart disease - due to predisposition to hypercholesterolemia and simultaneous high animal fat intake and/or smoking, low physical activity, stress factors etc.
● dependent on combination of genetic predisposition and factors of environment or life style influencing manifestation of the disease b - obesity and insulin non-dependent diabetes mellitus - combination of genetic predisposition with nutritional habits and low physical activity
Created by: akahs